The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Brief Reports |

Subcutaneous Morphine for Dyspnea in Cancer Patients

Eduardo Bruera, MD; Tara MacEachern, RN, BScN; Carla Ripamonti, MD; and John Hanson, MSc
[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

From Edmonton General Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and National Cancer Institute, Milano, Italy. Requests for Reprints: Eduardo Bruera, MD, Edmonton General Hospital, Palliative Care Program, Room 9Y39, 11111 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T5K 0L4, Canada.

Copyright 2004 by the American College of Physicians

Ann Intern Med. 1993;119(9):906-907. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-119-9-199311010-00007
Text Size: A A A

Dyspnea has been defined as an uncomfortable awareness of breathing [1]. It occurs in approximately 29% to 74% of patients with terminal cancer [2] and is perceived as one of the most devastating symptoms by the patient and the family. Controlled single-dose trials have suggested that opioids are effective in the management of dyspnea associated with chronic obstructive lung disease [4]. However, opioids were poorly tolerated in these patients during repeated administration, mostly because of sedation and nausea [5]. These side effects usually disappear with the development of tolerance and are rarely a cause for discontinuing treatment among the approximately 80% of terminal cancer patients who receive opioids for pain [6]. However, the effects of opioids on the dyspnea of cancer have not been the focus of prospective studies.


morphine ; dyspnea ; cancer

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview





Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $32.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Related Articles
Related Point of Care
Topic Collections
PubMed Articles
Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.