The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Articles |

Oral Contraceptive Use and Mortality during 12 Years of Follow-Up: The Nurses' Health Study

G. A. Colditz, MD
[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

From Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. For The Nurses' Health Study Research Group. Requests for Reprints: Graham A. Colditz, Channing Laboratory, 180 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115-5899. Acknowledgments: The author thanks R. Doll, R. Peto, and M. Vessey for helpful input. Grant Support: By grant CA 40936 from the National Institutes of Health. G. A. Colditz is supported by Faculty Research Award FRA 398 from the American Cancer Society.

Copyright ©2004 by the American College of Physicians

Ann Intern Med. 1994;120(10):821-826. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-120-10-199405150-00002
Text Size: A A A

Objective: To examine prospectively the risk for mortality among women who had ever used oral contraceptives compared with those who had never used oral contraceptives.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Nurses' Health Study.

Participants: 166 755 women aged 30 to 55 years in 1976, followed through 1988 (1.3 million person-years of follow-up).

Results: On the basis of 2879 deaths, we found no overall difference in mortality among women who had ever used oral contraceptives compared with women who had never used oral contraceptives; the relative risk for ever-users, adjusted for age, body mass index, and cigarette smoking was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.01). We observed no trend in risk for total mortality with increasing duration of past use of oral contraceptives. After adjusting for age, body mass index, and cigarette smoking, women who had used oral contraceptives for 10 or more years had a relative risk of 1.06 (CI, 0.83 to 1.35).

Conclusion: Use of oral contraceptives is safe; no evidence from this study indicates that long durations of oral contraceptive use adversely affect long-term risk for mortality.





Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $32.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Related Articles
Related Point of Care
Topic Collections
PubMed Articles
Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.