Fauci AS. Multifactorial nature of human immunodeficiency virus disease: implications for therapy. Science. 1993; 262:1011-8.
Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Fauci AS. New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328:327-35.
Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Demarest JF, Butini L, Montroni M, Fox CH, et al. HIV infection is active and progressive in lymphoid tissue during the clinically latent stage of disease. Nature. 1993; 362:355-8.
Fox CH, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Firpo A, Pizzo PA, Fauci AS. Lymphoid germinal centers are reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA. J Infect Dis. 1991; 164:1051-7.
Daar ES, Moudgil T, Meyer RD, Ho DD. Transient high levels of viremia in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1991; 324:961-4.
Clark SJ, Saag MS, Decker WD, Campbell-Hill S, Roberson JL, Veldkamp PJ, et al. High titers of cytopathic virus in plasma of patients with symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1991; 324:954-60.
Safrit JT, Andrews CA, Zhu T, Ho DD, Koup RA. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones isolated during acute seroconversion: recognition of autologous virus sequences within a conserved immunodominant epitope. J Exp Med. 1994; 179:463-72.
Tindall B, Cooper DA. Primary HIV infection: host responses and intervention strategies [Editorial]. AIDS. 1991; 5:1-14.
Piatak M Jr, Saag MS, Yang LC, Clark SJ, Kappes JC, Luk KC, et al. High levels of HIV-1 in plasma during all stages of infection determined by competitive PCR. Science. 1993; 259:1749-54.
Wei X, Ghosh SK, Taylor ME, Johnson VA, Emini EA, Deutsch P, et al. Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Nature. 1996; 373:117-22.
Ho DD, Neumann AU, Perelson AS, Chen W, Leonard JM, Markowitz M, et al. Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. Nature. 1995; 373:123-6.
Ascher MS, Sheppard HW. AIDS as immune system activation: a model for pathogenesis. Clin Exp Immunol. 1988; 73:165-7.
Pantaleo G, Koenig S, Baseler M, Lane HC, Fauci AS. Defective clonogenic potential of CD8+ T lymphocytes in patients with AIDS. Expansion in vivo of a nonclonogenic CD3+CD8+DR+ CD25− T cell population. J Immunol. 1990; 144:1696-704.
Embretson J, Zupancic M, Ribas JL, Burke A, Racz P, Tenner-Racz K, et al. Massive covert infection of helper T lymphocytes and macrophages by HIV during the incubation period of AIDS. Nature. 1993; 362:359-62.
Harper ME, Marselle LM, Gallo RC, Wong-Staal F. Detection of lymphocytes expressing human T-lymphotropic virus type III in lymph nodes and peripheral blood from infected individuals by in situ hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986; 83:772-6.
Pantaleo G, Graziosi C, Demarest JF, Cohen OJ, Vaccarezza M, Gantt K, et al. Role of lymphoid organs in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Immunol Rev. 1994; 140:105-30.
Heath SL, Tew JG, Tew JG, Szakal AK, Burton GF. Follicular dendritic cells and human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. Nature. 1995; 377:740-4.
Schrager LK, Fauci AS. Human immunodeficiency virus. Trapped but still dangerous. Nature. 1995; 377:680-1.
Poli G, Fauci AS. Cytokine modulation of HIV expression. Semin Immunol. 1993; 5:165-73.
Fauci AS. The human immunodeficiency virus: infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenesis. Science. 1988; 239:617-22.
Graziosi C, Pantaleo G, Gantt KR, Fortin JP, Demarest JF, Cohen OJ, et al. Lack of evidence for the dichotomy of TH1 and TH2 predominance in HIV-infected individuals. Science. 1994; 265:248-52.
Poli G, Kinter AL, Fauci AS. Interleukin 1 induces expression of the human immunodeficiency virus alone and in synergy with interleukin 6 in chronically infected U1 cells: inhibition of inductive effects by the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994; 91:108-12.
Folks TM, Justement J, Kinter A, Dinarello CA, Fauci AS. Cytokine-induced expression of HIV-1 in a chronically infected promonocyte cell line. Science. 1987; 238:800-2.
Folks TM, Clouse KA, Justement J, Rabson A, Duh E, Kehrl JH, et al. Tumor necrosis factor α induces expression of human immunodeficiency virus in a chronically infected T-cell clone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989; 86:2365-8.
Kinter AL, Poli G, Fox L, Hardy E, Fauci AS. HIV replication in IL-2-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells is driven in an autocrine/paracrine manner by endogenous cytokines. J Immunol. 1995; 154:2448-59.
Koup RA, Safrit JT, Cao Y, Andrews CA, McLeod G, Borkowsky W, et al. Temporal association of cellular immune responses with the initial control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 syndrome. J Virol. 1994; 68:4650-5.
Pantaleo G, Demarest JF, Soudeyns H, Graziosi C, Denis F, Adelsberger JW, et al. Major expansion of CD8+ T cells with a predominant V β usage during the primary immune response to HIV. Nature. 1994; 370:463-7.
Pantaleo G, Fauci AS. New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. Annu Rev Immunol. 1995; 13:487-512.
Zon LI, Arkin C, Groopman JE. Haematologic manifestations of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV). Br J Haematol. 1987; 66:251-6.
Folks TM, Kessler SW, Orenstein JM, Justement JS. Jaffe ES, Fauci AS. Infection and replication of HIV-1 in purified progenitor cells of normal human bone marrow. Science. 1988; 242:919-22.
Stanley SK, Kessler SW, Justement JS, Schnittman SM, Greenhouse JJ, Brown CC, et al. CD34+ bone marrow cells are infected with HIV in a subset of seropositive individuals. J Immunol. 1992; 149:689-97.
Schuurman HJ, Krone WJ, Broekhuizen R, van Baarlen J, van Veen P, Golstein AL, et al. The thymus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Comparison with other types of immunodeficiency diseases, and presence of components of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Am J Pathol. 1989; 134:1329-38.
McCune JM, Namikawa R, Kaneshima H, Shultz LD, Lieberman M, Weissman IL. The SCID-hu mouse: murine model for the analysis of human hematolymphoid differentiation and function. Science. 1988; 241:1632-9.
Stanley SK, McCune JM, Kaneshima H, Justement JS, Sullivan M, Boone E, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of the human thymus and disruption of the thymic microenvironment in the SCID-humouse. J Exp Med. 1993; 178:1151-63.
Bonyhadi ML, Rabin L, Salimi S, Brown DA, Kosek J, McCune JM, et al. HIV induces thymus depletion in vivo. Nature. 1993; 363:728-32.
Aldrovandi GM, Feuer G, Gao L, Jamieson B, Kristeva M, Chen IS, et al. The SCID-hu mouse as a model for HIV-1 infection. Nature. 1993; 363:732-6.
Steinman RM. The dendritic cell system and its role in immunogenicity. Annu Rev Immunol. 1991; 9:271-96.
Langhoff E, Terwilliger EF, Bos HJ, Kalland KH, Poznansky MC, Bacon OM, et al. Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in primary dendritic cell cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991; 88:7998-8002.
Macatonia SE, Lau R, Patterson S, Pinching AJ, Knight SC. Dendritic cell infection, depletion and dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. Immunology. 1990; 71:38-45.
Macatonia SE, Gompels M, Pinching AJ, Patterson S, Knight SC. Antigen-presentation by macrophages but not by dendritic cells in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Immunology. 1992; 75:576-81.
Karhumaki E, Viljanen ME, Cottler-Fox M, Ranki A, Fox CH, Krohn KJ. An improved enrichment method for functionally competent, highly purified peripheral blood dendritic cells and its application to HIV-infected blood samples. Clin Exp Immunol. 1993; 91:482-8.
Cameron PU, Forsum U, Teppler H, Granelli-Piperno A, Steinman RM. During HIV-1 infection most blood dendritic cells are not productively infected and can induce allogeneic CD4+ T cells clonal expansion. Clin Exp Immunol. 1992; 88:226-36.
Cameron PU, Freudenthal PS, Barker JM, Gezelter S, Inaba K, Steinman RM. Dendritic cells exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transmit a vigorous cytopathic infection to CD4+ T cells. Science. 1992; 257:383-7.
Pope M, Betjes MG, Romani N, Hirmand H, Cameron PU, Hoffman L, et al. Conjugates of dendritic cells and memory T lymphocytes from skin facilitate productive infection with HIV-1. Cell. 1994; 78:389-98.
Thomas R, Davis LS, Lipsky PE. Isolation and characterization of human peripheral blood dendritic cells. J Immunol. 1993; 150:821-34.
O'Doherty U, Steinman RM, Peng M, Cameron PU, Gezelter S, Kopeloff I, et al. Dendritic cells freshly isolated from human blood express CD4 and mature into typical immunostimulatory dendritic cells after culture in monocyte-conditioned medium. J Exp Med. 1993; 178:1067-78.
Zhou LI, Schwarting R, Smith HM, Tedder TF. A novel cell-surface molecule expressed by human interdigitating reticulum cells, Langerhans cells, and activated lymphocytes is a new member of the Ig superfamily. J Immunol. 1992; 149:735-42.
Weissman D, Li Y, Ananworanich J, Zhou LI, Adelsberger J, Tedder TF, et al. Three populations of cells with dendritic morphology exist in peripheral blood, only one of which is infectable with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995; 92:826-30.
Weissman D, Li Y, Orenstein JM, Fauci AS. Both a precursor and a mature population of dendritic cells can bind HIV. However, only the mature population that expresses CD80 can pass infection to unstimulated CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 1995; 155:4111-7.
McWilliam AS, Nelson D, Thomas JA, Holt PG. Rapid dendritic cell recruitment is a hallmark of the acute inflammatory response at mucosal surfaces. J Exp Med. 1994; 179:1331-6.
Fauci AS, Schnittman SM, Poli G, Koenig S, Pantaleo G. NIH conference. Immunopathogenic mechanisms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med. 1991; 114:678-93.
Lifson AR, Buchbinder SP, Sheppard HW, Mawle AC, Wilber JC, Stanley M, et al. Long-term human immunodeficiency virus infection in asymptomatic homosexual and bisexual men with normal CD4+ lymphocyte counts: immunologic and virologic characteristics. J Infect Dis. 1991; 163:959-65.
Pantaleo G, Menzo S, Vaccarezza M, Graziosi C, Cohen OJ, Demarest JF, et al. Studies in subjects with long-term nonprogressive human immuno-deficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332:209-16.
Cao Y, Qin L, Zhang L, Safrit J, Ho DD. Virologic and immunologic characterization of long-term survivors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332:201-8.
Kirchhoff F, Greenough TC, Brettler DB, Sullivan JL, Desrosiers RC. Brief report: absence of intact nef sequences in a long-term survivor with nonprogressive HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332:228-32.
Fauci AS. Newer concepts in the immunopathogenesis of HIV disease. Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians. 1995; 107:1-7.