Collier AC, Meyers JD, Corey L, Murphy VL, Roberts PL, Handsfield HH. Cytomegalovirus infection in homosexual men. Relationship to sexual practices, antibody to human immunodeficiency virus, and cell-mediated immunology. Am J Med. 1987; 82(3 Spec No):593-601.
Shepp DH, Moses JE, Kaplan MH. Seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus in patients with advanced HIV disease: influence on disease expression and survival. J AIDS. 1996; 11:460-8.
McKenzie R, Travis WD, Dolan SA, Pittaluga S, Feuerstein IM, Shelhamer J, et al. The causes of death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a clinical and pathologic study with emphasis on the role of pulmonary diseases. Medicine (Baltimore). 1991; 70:326-43.
Gallant JE, Moore RD, Richman DD, Keruly J, Chaisson RE. Incidence and natural history of cytomegalovirus disease in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease treated with zidovudine. The Zidovudine Epidemiology Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1992; 166:1223-7.
Hoover DR, Saah AJ, Bacellar H, Phair J, Detels R, Anderson R, et al. Clinical manifestations of AIDS in the era of pneumocystis prophylaxis. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. N Engl J Med. 1993; 329:1922-6.
Selik RM, Chu SY, Ward JW. Trends in infectious diseases and cancers among persons dying of HIV infection in the United States from 1987 to 1992. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 123:933-6.
Freeman WR, Friedberg DN, Berry C, Quiceno JI, Behette M, Fullerton SC, et al. Risk factors for development of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993; 116:713-20.
Jabs DA, Engler C, Haller J, de Bustros S. Retinal detachment in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991; 109:794-9.
Orellana J, Teich SA, Lieberman RM, Restrepo S, Peairs R. Treatment of retinal detachments in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1991; 98:939-43.
Sidikaro Y, Silver L, Holland GN, Kreiger AE. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments in patients with AIDS and necrotizing retinal infections. Ophthalmology. 1991; 98:129-35.
Newsome DA, Green WR, Miller ED, Kiessling LA, Morgan B, Jabs DA, et al. Microvascular aspects of acquired immune deficiency syndrome retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984; 98:590-601.
Holland GN, Pepose JS, Pettit TH, Gottlieb MS, Yee RD, Foos RY. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ocular manifestations. Ophthalmology. 1983; 90:859-73.
Jabs DA, Green WR, Fox R, Polk BF, Bartlett JG. Ocular manifestations of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1989; 96:1092-9.
McGrath MS, Shiramizu B, Meeker TC, Kaplan LD, Herndier B. AIDS-associated polyclonal lymphoma: identification of a new HIV-associated disease process. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991; 4:408-15.
Holland GN, Engstrom RE Jr, Glasgow BJ, Berger BB, Daniels SA, Sidikaro Y, et al. Ocular toxoplasmosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1988; 106:653-67.
Margolis TP, Lowder CY, Holland GN, Spaide RF, Logan AG, Weissman SS, et al. Varicella-zoster retinitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991; 112:119-31.
Engstrom RE Jr, Holland GN, Margolis TP, Muccioli C, Lindley JI, Belfort R Jr. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome. A variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with AIDS. Ophthalmology. 1994; 101:1488-502.
Kuppermann BD, Petty JG, Richman DD, Matthews WC, Fullerton SC, Rickman LS, et al. Correlation between CD4+ counts and prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and human immunodeficiency virus-related noninfectious retinal vasculopathy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993; 115:575-82.
Foscarnet-Ganciclovir Cytomegalovirus Trial. 4. Visual outcomes. Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS Research Group in collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Ophthalmology. 1994; 101:1250-61.
Maclean H, Dhillon B. Cytomegalovirus retinitis: diagnosis and treatment [Editorial]. Int J STD AIDS. 1993; 4:322-5.
Salmon D, Lacassin F, Harzic M, Leport C, Perrone C, Bricaire F, et al. Predictive value of cytomegalovirus viremia for the occurrence of CMV organ involvement in AIDS. J Med Virol. 1990; 32:160-3.
Zurlo JJ, O'Neill D, Polis MA, Manischewitz J, Yarchoan R, Baseler M, et al. Lack of clinical utility of cytomegalovirus blood and urine cultures in patients with HIV infection. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 118:12-7.
MacGregor RR, Pakola SJ, Graziani AL, Montzka DP, Hodinka RL, Nichols CW, et al. Evidence of active cytomegalovirus infection in clinically stable HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ lymphocyte counts below 100/µL of blood: features and relation to risk of subsequent CMV retinitis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995; 10:324-30.
Revello MG, Percivalle E, Di Matteo A, Morini F, Gerna G. Nuclear expression of the lower matrix protein of human cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood leukocytes of immunocompromised viraemic patients. J Gen Virol. 1992; 73:437-42.
Erice A, Holm MA, Gill PC, Henry S, Dirksen CL, Dunn DL, et al. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay is more sensitive than shell vial cultures for rapid detection of CMV in polymorphonuclear blood leukocytes. J Clin Microbiol. 1992; 30:2822-5.
Francisci D, Tosti A, Preziosi R, Baldelli F, Stagni G, Pauluzzi S. Role of antigenemia assay in the early diagnosis and prediction of human cytomegalovirus organ involvement in AIDS patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995; 14:498-503.
Gerna G, Zipeto D, Parea M, Percivalle E, Zavattoni M, Gaballo A, et al. Early virus isolation, early structural antigen detection and DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from AIDS patients with human cytomegalovirus viremia. Mol Cell Probes. 1991; 5:365-74.
Zipeto D, Revello MG, Silini E, Parea M, Percivalle E, Zavattoni M, et al. Development and clinical significance of a diagnostic assay based on the polymerase chain reaction for detection of human cytomegalovirus DNA in blood samples from immunocompromised patients. J Clin Microbiol. 1992; 30:527-30.
Rasmussen L, Morris S, Zipeto D, Fessel J, Wolitz R, Dowling A, et al. Quantitation of human cytomegalovirus DNA from peripheral blood cells of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients could predict cytomegalovirus retinitis. J Infect Dis. 1995; 171:177-82.
Drouet E, Boibieux A, Michelson S, Ecochard R, Biron F, Peyramond D, et al. Polymerase chain reaction detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes as a predictor of cytomegalovirus disease in HIV-infected patients. AIDS. 1993; 7:665-8.
Griffiths PD and Feinberg J on behalf of the ACTG 204/Glaxo Wellcome 123-014 International CMV Prophylaxis Study Group. Detection of cytomegalovirus in samples from patients enrolled in ACTG 204/Glaxo Wellcome 123-014 [Abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 3rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Washington, DC: 3rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 1996:10.
Boivin G, Handfield J, Murray G, Toma E, Lazar J, Bergeron MG. Evaluation of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) of HIV-infected patients using quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) [Abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 3rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Washington, DC: 3rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 1996:11.
Hansen KK, Ricksten A, Hofmann B, Norrild B, Olofsson S, Mathieson L. Detection of cytomegalovirus in serum correlates with clinical cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1994; 170:1271-4.
Gerna G, Baldanti F, Sarasini A, Furione M, Percivalle E, Revello MG, et al. Effect of foscarnet induction treatment on quantitation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes and aqueous humor of AIDS patients with HCMV retinitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994; 38:38-44.
Persing DH. Diagnostic molecular microbiology. Current challenges and future directions. Diag Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993; 16:159-63.
Spector SA, Weingeist T, Pollard RB, Dieterich DT, Samo T, Benson CA, et al. A randomized, controlled study of intravenous ganciclovir therapy for cytomegalovirus peripheral retinitis in patients with AIDS. AIDS Clinical Trials Group and Cytomegalovirus Cooperative Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1993; 168:557-63.
Hochster H, Dieterich D, Bozzette S, Reichman RC, Connor JD, Liebes L, et al. Toxicity of combined ganciclovir and zidovudine for cytomegalovirus disease associated with AIDS. An AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study. Ann Intern Med. 1990; 113:111-7.
Palestine AG, Polis MA, De Smet MD, Baird BF, Falloon J, Kovacs JA, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of foscarnet in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. Ann Intern Med. 1991; 115:665-73.
Morbidity and toxic effects associated with ganciclovir or foscarnet therapy in a randomized cytomegalovirus retinitis trial. Studies of ocular complications of AIDS Research Group, in collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Arch Intern Med. 1995; 155:65-74.
Mortality in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with either foscarnet or ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus retinitis. Studies of Ocular Complications of AIDS Research Group, in collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1992; 326:213-20.
Martin DF, Parks DJ, Mellow SD, Ferris FL, Walton RC, Remaley NA, et al. Treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis with an intraocular sustained-release ganciclovir implant. A randomized, controlled clinical trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994; 112:1531-9.
Lalezari JP, Drew WL, Glutzer E, James C, Miner D, Flaherty J, et al. (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]cytosine (cidofovir): results of a phase I/II study of a novel antiviral nucleotide analogue. J Infect Dis. 1995; 171:788-96.
Spector SA, Busch DF, Follansbee S, Squires K, Lalezari JP, Jacobson MA, et al. Pharmacokinetic, safety, and antiviral profiles of oral ganciclovir in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a phase I/II study. AIDS Clinical Trials Group, and Cytomegalovirus Cooperative Study Group. J Infect Dis. 1995; 171:1431-7.
Drew WL, Ives D, Lalezari JP, Crumpacker C, Follansbee SE, Spector SA, et al. Oral ganciclovir as maintenance treatment for cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333:615-20.
Cochereau-Massin I, Lehoang P, Lautier-Frau M, Zazoun L, Marcel P, Robinet M, et al. Efficacy and tolerance of intravitreal ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1991; 98:1348-53.
Diaz-Llopis M, Espana E, Munoz G, Navea A, Chipont E, Cano J, et al. High dose intravitreal foscarnet in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS. Br J Ophthalmol. 1994; 78:120-4.
Lalezari J, Holland G, Stagg R, Ives D, Kramer F, Kuppermann B, et al. A randomized, controlled study of cidofovir (CDV) for relapsing cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV-R) in patients with AIDS [Abstract]. In: Program and abstracts—35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1995:LB-9.
Kirsch LS, Arevalo JF, Chavez de la Paz E, Munguia D, de Clercq E, Freeman WR. Intravitreal cidofovir (HPMPC) treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ophthalmology. 1995; 102:533-42.
Combination foscarnet and ganciclovir therapy vs monotherapy for the treatment of relapsed cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS Research Group in Collaboration with the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Arch Ophthal. 1996; 114:23-33.
Drew WL, Miner RC, Busch DF, Follansbee SE, Gullett J, Mehalko SG, et al. Prevalence of resistance in patients receiving ganciclovir for serious cytomegalovirus infection. J Infect Dis. 1991; 163:716-9.
Drew WL, Miner RC, Crager M, Stempien MJ. Does resistance to ganciclovir develop in patients receiving prophylactic drug? [Abstract] In: Program and Abstracts—Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1995:H135.
Dieterich DT, Poles MA, Lew EA, Mendez PE, Murphy R, Addessi A, et al. Concurrent use of ganciclovir and foscarnet to treat cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS patients. J Infect Dis. 1993; 167:1184-8.
Kupperman BD, Flores-Aguilar M, Quiceno JI, Rickman LS, Freeman WR. Combination ganciclovir and foscarnet in the treatment of clinically resistant cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993; 111:1359-66.
Peters M, Schurmann D, Bergmann F, Grunewald T, Timm H, Pohle HD, et al. Safety of alternating ganciclovir and foscarnet maintenance therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related cytomegalovirus infections. An open-labeled pilot study. Scand J Infect Dis. 1994; 26:49-54.
Polis MA, Spooner KM, Baird BF, Manischewitz JF, Jaffe HS, Fisher PE, et al. Anticytomegaloviral activity and safety of cidofovir in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and cytomegalovirus viruria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995; 39:882-6.
Tolpin M, Pollard R, Tierney M, Nokta M, Wood D, Hirsch M. Combination therapy of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis with a human monoclonal anti-CMV antibody (SDZ MSL 109) and either ganciclovir (DHPG) or foscarnet (PFA) [Abstract]. In: IXth International Conference on AIDS in affiliation with the IVth STD World Congress. Berlin, Germany: Institute for Clinical and Experimental Virology of the Free University of Berlin; 1993:WS-B11-2.
Polis MA, Kelly G, Manischewitz J, et al. A pilot study to determine the efficacy of cytomegalovirus immune globulin (CMVIG-IV) for the prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in HIV-infected persons with CMV viruria [Abstract]. In: Abstracts of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. New Orleans: 31st Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 1993:187.
Engstrom RE Jr, Holland GN. Local therapy for cytomegalovirus retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995; 120:376-85.
Palestine AG, Cantrill HL, Luckie AP, Ai E. Intravitreal treatment of CMV retinitis with an antisense oligonucleotide, ISIS 2922 [Abstract]. In: Tenth International Conference on AIDS. Yokohama, Japan: Tenth International Conference on AIDS; 1994:332B.
Palestine AG, Cantrill H, AI E, Lieberman R. Treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis with ISIS 2922. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995; 35(4):S181.
Anand R, Nightingale SD, Fish RH, Smith TJ, Ashton P. Control of cytomegalovirus retinitis using sustained release of intraocular ganciclovir. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993; 111:223-7.
A randomized, controlled multicenter clinical trial of a sustained-release intraocular ganciclovir implant in AIDS patients with CMV retinitis. The Chiron Ganciclovir Implant Study Group [Abstract]. In: Program and Abstracts—35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1995:1215.
Stewart JA, Reef SE, Pellett PE, Corey L, Whitley RJ. Herpesvirus infections in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 1995; 21 Suppl 1:S114-20.
Kovacs JA, Vogel S, Albert J, Falloon J, Davey R, Walker R, et al. A randomized trial of intermittent interleukin-2 therapy in HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts more than 200 cells/mm3 [Abstract]. In: Program and Abstracts-35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1995:LB-8.
Wolitz R, Friedberg D, Spector SA, Wong R, Stempien MJ. Presentation and treatment outcome of CMV retinitis after oral ganciclovir prophylaxis [Abstract]. Washington, DC: 3rd Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; Washington, DC, 1996.
Spector SA, McKinley GF, Lalezari JP, Samo T, Andruczk R, Follansbee S, et al. Oral ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in persons with AIDS. N Engl J Med. 1996; 334:1491-7.
Frascino RJ, Anderson RD, Gaines-Guffy K, Jung D, Yu S. Two multiple dose cross over studies of IV ganciclovir and didanosine in HIV infected persons [Abstract]. In: Program and Abstracts—35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1995:A27.
Brosgart CL, Craig C, Hillman D, Louis TA, Alston B. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the safety and efficacy of oral ganciclovir for prophylaxis of CMV retinal and gastrointestinal mucosal disease in HIV-infected individuals with severe immunosuppression [Abstract]. In: Program and Abstracts—35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1995:LB-10.
USPHS/IDSA guidelines for the prevention of opportunistic infections in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus disease-specific recommendations. USPHS/IDSA Prevention of Opportunistic Infections Working Group. Clin Infect Dis. 1995; 21 Suppl 1:S32-43.