Intravascular catheters are integral to the practice of modern medicine. These devices are used to deliver life-sustaining fluids, such as antimicrobial agents, parenteral nutrition, and blood or blood products, and to monitor the hemodynamic status of critically ill patients. However, a potentially life-threatening complication-infection, particularly bloodstream infection-is associated with the use of intravascular catheters. Several types of catheters are available for clinical use, including short peripheral catheters, midline catheters, peripherally inserted central venous catheters, nontunneled central venous catheters used for the short term, and tunneled central venous catheters used for the long term (for example, Hickman and port catheters). The various types of catheters differ in their associated risk for infection. For example, central venous catheters account for an estimated 90% of all nosocomial bloodstream infections (1), and multilumen central venous catheters have been associated with a higher risk for infection than have single-lumen central venous catheters (2 - 5).