Kidney failure is a late complication of diabetes. Medicines called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors delay kidney failure in persons with diabetes. There are two ways to detect early kidney damage: testing urine for a moderate amount of protein (proteinuria) or for a small amount of protein (microalbuminuria). (Proteinuria is easier to test for but detects kidney damage later). Experts therefore recommend testing diabetic patients yearly and starting therapy with ACE inhibitors as soon as microalbuminuria develops. However, many patients with diabetes who might benefit from ACE inhibitors do not get them. More diabetic patients might get ACE inhibitors if all diabetic patients were treated with ACE inhibitors without requiring the additional step of testing for mild kidney damage first. On the other hand, treating everyone with ACE inhibitors is likely to be more expensive because it involves treating all diabetic patients for many years.