The National Census Bureau conducted the survey. Participants were asked about personal characteristics, medical conditions, and medical care. The survey also asked women for their height and weight, from which the researchers were able to categorize each woman as obese (heaviest), overweight (less heavy), or normal weight. In addition, a special part of the survey asked about how long it had been since each woman had had a Pap smear and a mammogram. The researchers determined whether women aged 18 to 75 years reported having a Pap smear in the past 3 years and whether women aged 50 to 75 years reported having a mammogram in the previous 2 years. They then compared the rates of Pap smears and mammograms among women who were obese, overweight, and normal weight.