The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Original Research |

Sex Differences in 2-Year Mortality after Hospital Discharge for Myocardial Infarction

Viola Vaccarino, MD, PhD; Harlan M. Krumholz, MD; Jorge Yarzebski, MD, MPH; Joel M. Gore, MD; and Robert J. Goldberg, PhD
[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

From Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; Yale University School of Medicine and Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut; and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Grant Support: By the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01 HL35434).

Requests for Single Reprints: Viola Vaccarino, MD, PhD, Department of Medicine (Cardiology), Emory University School of Medicine, Emory West, 1256 Briarcliff Road, Suite 1 North, Atlanta, GA 30306.

Current Author Addresses: Dr. Vaccarino: Department of Medicine (Cardiology), Emory University School of Medicine, Emory West, 1256 Briarcliff Road, Suite 1 North, Atlanta, GA 30306.

Dr. Krumholz: Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Cardiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8025.

Drs. Yarzebski, Gore, and Goldberg: Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655.

Author Contributions: Conception and design: V. Vaccarino.

Analysis and interpretation of the data: V. Vaccarino.

Drafting of the article: V. Vaccarino.

Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: H.M. Krumholz, J. Yarzebski, J.M. Gore, R.J. Goldberg.

Final approval of the article: H.M. Krumholz, J. Yarzebski, J.M. Gore, R.J. Goldberg.

Provision of study materials or patients: R.J. Goldberg.

Collection and assembly of data: J. Yarzebski, J.M. Gore, R.J. Goldberg.

Ann Intern Med. 2001;134(3):173-181. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-134-3-200102060-00007
Text Size: A A A

The issue of whether women have more unfavorable short-term outcomes than men after acute myocardial infarction has elicited considerable debate (16). In a recent study, we demonstrated an important interaction between sex and age that affected hospital mortality after myocardial infarction (78). We found that younger, but not older, women have higher mortality rates than men of similar age. The risk among women increases linearly with decreasing age and is not fully explained by differences in clinical presentation or treatment (8).

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview


Grahic Jump Location
Age-adjusted cumulative mortality rate from hospital discharge to 2 years in three age groups.

Solid lines represent men; dotted lines represent women.

Grahic Jump Location




Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Differences between Men and Women in Risk for Death after a Heart Attack

The summary below is from the full report titled “Sex Differences in 2-Year Mortality after Hospital Discharge for Myocardial Infarction.” It is in the 6 February 2001 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 134, pages 173-181). The authors are V Vaccarino, HM Krumholz, J Yarzebski, JM Gore, and RJ Goldberg.


Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $32.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Related Articles
Related Point of Care
Topic Collections
PubMed Articles
Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.