One solution envisions separate professional societies and unions working in parallel. The American College of Physicians–American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association, Federation of State Medical Boards, and other organizations would promote physician professionalism, including autonomy. The International Brotherhood of Teamsters; the International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace, & Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW); or the United Association of Journeymen & Apprentices of the Plumbing, Pipefitting, Sprinklerfitting Industry of the United States & Canada (UA) would bargain for physician wages, benefits, hours, and other terms of service. Individual physicians would decide their relative commitment to professionalism versus unionism. The market would determine whether both paradigms cancoexist.