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Physicians and Joint Negotiations

American College of Physicians–American Society of Internal Medicine*
[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

*This paper, written by Jack Ginsburg, MPE, was developed for the Health and Public Policy Committee and the Ethics and Human Rights Committee. Members of the Health and Public Policy Committee were Paul F. Speckart, MD (Chair); Lynne M. Kirk, MD (Vice Chair); David Blumenthal, MD; Jeffrey P. Harris, MD; Carlos R. Hamilton, MD; Mary T. Herald, MD; Martin E. Hickey, MD; Gregory A. Hood, MD; John A. Seibel, MD; Wayne J. Riley, MD, MPH; Philip T. Rodilosso, MD; Lee A. Toman, MD; Laurence D. Wellikson, MD; and Winthrop F. Whitcomb, MD. Members of the Ethics and Human Rights Committee were Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, MD, MBA (Chair); S.Y. Tan, MD (Vice Chair); David A. Fleming, MD; Susan Dorr Goold, MD; Vincent Herrin, MD; Joanne Lynn, MD; Bernard M. Rosof, MD; Daniel P. Sulmasy, OFM, MD, PhD; James A. Tulsky, MD; and Lee J. Dunn Jr., JD, LLM. Approved by the Board of Regents on 17 July 1999.

Requests for Single Reprints: Customer Service, American College of Physicians–American Society of Internal Medicine, 190 N. Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106.

Corresponding Author: Jack Ginsburg, Policy Analysis and Research, American College of Physicians–American Society of Internal Medicine, 2011 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006.

Ann Intern Med. 2001;134(9_Part_1):787-792. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-134-9_Part_1-200105010-00018
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Traditionally, as independent professionals, physicians have not been recognized as employees with collective bargaining rights under federal labor laws. Physicians generally have avoided unions and have not organized for collective bargaining purposes. Under current antitrust laws, such action by physicians in independent practice is prohibited.

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