The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Editorials |

Social Status and Mortality

Ray Fitzpatrick, PhD
[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

Institute of Health Sciences; University of Oxford (Fitzpatrick)

Current Author Address: Ray Fitzpatrick, PhD, Division of Public Health and Primary Health Care, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Old Road, Headington, Oxford OX3 7LF, United Kingdom.

Ann Intern Med. 2001;134(10):1001-1003. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-134-10-200105150-00014
Text Size: A A A

Few societies, even modern Scandinavian welfare states, avoid the uncomfortable fact of social inequalities in health. In the United Kingdom, ever since accurate mortality data first became available early in the 19th century, life expectancy has been shown to be more favorable for persons in higher-status occupations. Their relative advantages are also enjoyed by their households. Currently, boys born to families with a parent in a professional or managerial occupation can expect to live 5 years longer than a counterpart born to a parent working in a partly skilled or unskilled occupation (1). Similar inequalities in life expectancy prevail in the United States (23). Until recently, the most plausible explanation for such inequalities has been that lower-status jobs were associated with lower income, which in turn resulted in damage to the health of an individual and his or her family through poorer diet and housing, lack of access to appropriate health care, and higher levels of social stress. Recently, however, accumulating evidence suggests that such explanations may not be sufficient and that social status itself, regardless of associated material and economic advantages, may confer health benefits.


social status

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview





Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $32.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Related Articles
Topic Collections
PubMed Articles
Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.