Urinary tract infections (UTIs or “bladder infections”) are common in women. UTIs can be recurrent, meaning that they happen again, even after appropriate treatment. Some doctors give women with recurrent UTIs regular low doses of antibiotics to prevent future infections, but this involves the cost and inconvenience of taking medicine for a condition that might or might not occur again. UTI symptoms include frequent and painful urination, so women usually can easily tell when they have a UTI. Patient-initiated treatment is another way to handle recurrent UTI. In this approach, doctors give patients a standing prescription for antibiotics to take only when symptoms occur. Patient-initiated treatment avoids the need to see a doctor and the inconvenience of preventive antibiotics.