Background: The hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) is characterized by recurrent attacks of fever, abdominal distress, and arthralgia and is caused by mevalonate kinase mutations.
Objective: To ascertain the role of mevalonate kinase and the usefulness of molecular diagnosis in HIDS.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Setting: The international Nijmegen HIDS registry.
Patients: 54 patients from 41 families who met the clinical criteria for HIDS.
Measurements: Clinical symptoms and signs, immunoglobulin concentration, leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mutation analysis, and mevalonate kinase enzyme activity assay.
Results: There were two groups of patients: 41 patients with mevalonate kinase mutations (classic-type HIDS) and 13 patients without mutations (variant-type HIDS). Patients with classic-type HIDS had a lower mevalonate kinase enzyme activity, a higher IgD level, and more additional symptoms with attacks. The IgD level did not correlate with disease severity, mevalonate kinase enzyme activity, or genotype.
Conclusion: Genetic heterogeneity exists among patients with a clinical diagnosis of HIDS.