The researchers interviewed patients at the beginning of the study and asked whether they had seen or spoken to a case manager at least once during the previous 6 months. They also asked patients whether they were in need of any of six services: income assistance, health insurance, housing, home health care, emotional counseling, or drug abuse care. During a second interview (an average of 243 days after the first interview), they asked study patients about the same needs. The researchers defined a patient as having “unmet needs” if he or she reported needing at least one of the six services during the first interview and the need was not met by the time of the second interview. The researchers also asked patients about hospitalizations, emergency room visits, outpatient visits, and use of anti-HIV medicines between the first and second interviews. The researchers then compared unmet needs, health care use, and medication use between patients who had a case manager and those who did not.