Small GW. Alzheimer's disease and other dementing disorders. Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. vol. 2. 6th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1995.2562
Launer LJ, Andersen K, Dewey ME, Letenneur L, Ott A, Amaducci LA, et al..
Rates and risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer's disease: results from EURODEM pooled analyses. EURODEM Incidence Research Group and Work Groups. European Studies of Dementia. Neurology. 1999; 52.78-84 PubMed
Kaufer DI, Cummings JL, Christine D.
Effect of tacrine on behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: an open-label study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1996; 9.1-6 PubMed
Rocca WA, Amaducci LA, Schoenberg BS.
Epidemiology of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 1986; 19.415-24 PubMed
U.S. Bureau of the Census. 65+ in the United States. Current Population Reports, Special Studies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996. Publication no. P23-190.
Aevarsson O, Svanborg A, Skoog I.
Seven-year survival rate after age 85 years: relation to Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Arch Neurol. 1998; 55.1226-32 PubMed
Bowen JD, Malter AD, Sheppard L, Kukull WA, McCormick WC, Teri L, et al..
Predictors of mortality in patients diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1996; 47.433-9 PubMed
Epidemiology of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1998; 6.S3-18 PubMed
Shekelle PG, MacLean CH, Morton SC, Wenger NS. Assessing care of vulnerable elders: methods for developing quality indicators. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 135.647-52
Ross GW, Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, Masaki KH, Murdaugh C, Trockman C, et al..
Frequency and characteristics of silent dementia among elderly Japanese-American men. The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. JAMA. 1997; 277.800-5 PubMed
Eccles M, Clarke J, Livingstone M, Freemantle N, Mason J.
North of England evidence based guidelines development project: guideline for the primary care management of dementia. BMJ. 1998; 317.802-8 PubMed
Small GW, Rabins PV, Barry PP, Buckholtz NS, DeKosky ST, Ferris SH, et al..
Diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer disease and related disorders. Consensus statement of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, the Alzheimer's Association, and the American Geriatrics Society. JAMA. 1997; 278.1363-71 PubMed
Dementia: Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Office of Geriatrics and Extended Care, Dept. of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Services and Research Administration; 1989.
Dementia Identification and Assessment: Guidelines for Primary Care Practitioners. Washington, DC: Veterans Health Administration, U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs; Oak Brook, IL: Technology Assessment Program, University Health System Consortium; 1997:1-103.
Costa PT Jr, William TM, Albert MS, Butters NM, Folstein MF, Gilman S, et al. Recognition and Initial Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 19. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1996. AHCPR publication no. 97-0702.
Mungas D, Marshall SC, Weldon M, Haan M, Reed BR.
Age and education correction of Mini-Mental State Examination for English and Spanish-speaking elderly. Neurology. 1996; 46.700-6 PubMed
Kitano H. Counseling and psychotherapy with Japanese Americans. Marsella AJ, Pedersen PB Cross-Cultural Counseling and Psychotherapy. New York: Pergamon; 1969.228-42
Lin KM, Fabrega H Jr. Cultural considerations in cognitive impairment disorders. DSM-IV Source Book. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Assoc Pr; 1997; 3.885-91
Chow TW, Ross L, Fox P, Cummings JL, Lin KM.
Utilization of Alzheimer's disease community resources by Asian-Americans in California. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000; 15.838-47 PubMed
Crum RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS, Folstein MF.
Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA. 1993; 269.2386-91 PubMed
McCurry SM, Edland SD, Teri L, Kukull WA, Bowen JD, McCormick WC, et al..
The cognitive abilities screening instrument (CASI): data from a cohort of 2524 cognitively intact elderly. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999; 14.882-8 PubMed
Thompson P, Blessed G.
Correlation between the 37-item mental test score and abbreviated 10-item mental test score by psychogeriatric day patients. Br J Psychiatry. 1987; 151.206-9 PubMed
Fillenbaum GG, Peterson B, Morris JC.
Estimating the validity of the clinical Dementia Rating Scale: the CERAD experience. Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease. Aging (Milano). 1996; 8.379-85 PubMed
Weytingh MD, Bossuyt PM, van Crevel H.
Reversible dementia: more than 10% or less than 1%? A quantitative review. J Neurol. 1995; 242.466-71 PubMed
Chui H, Zhang Q.
Evaluation of dementia: a systematic study of the usefulness of the American Academy of Neurology's practice parameters. Neurology. 1997; 49.925-35 PubMed
Walstra GJ, Teunisse S, van Gool WA, van Crevel H.
Reversible dementia in elderly patients referred to a memory clinic. J Neurol. 1997; 244.17-22 PubMed
The reversible dementias: do they reverse? Ann Intern Med. 1988; 109.476-86 PubMed
Schultz BM, Gambert SR. Minimizing the use of psychoactive medications in the institutionalized elderly. Clin Gerontol. 1991; 11.80-2
Cain ED, Lyness JM. Delirium, dementia, and amnestic and other cognitive disorders. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.892-3
Cummings JL, Benson DF. Dementia: A Clinical Approach. Boston: Butterworths; 1983.
Teunisse S, Bollen AE, van Gool WA, Walstra GJ.
Dementia and subnormal levels of vitamin B12: effects of replacement therapy on dementia. J Neurol. 1996; 243.522-9 PubMed
Council on Scientific Affairs. JAMA. 1986; 256.2234-8 PubMed
American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias of Late Life. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Assoc; 1997.
Mahler ME, Cummings JL, Benson DF.
Treatable dementias. West J Med. 1987; 146.705-12 PubMed
Practice parameter for diagnosis and evaluation of dementia. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 1994; 44.2203-6 PubMed
Knopman DS, DeKosky ST, Cummings JL, Chui H, Corey-Bloom J, Relkin N, et al..
Practice parameter: Diagnosis of dementia (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2001; 56.1143-53 PubMed
Simon D. Routine imaging in suspected dementia: diagnostic and therapeutic yield [Abstract]. Clin Res. 1992; 40.565A
Alexander EM, Wagner EH, Buchner DM, Cain KC, Larson EB.
Do surgical brain lesions present as isolated dementia? A population-based study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995; 43.138-43 PubMed
Martin DC, Miller J, Kapoor W, Karpf M, Boller F.
Clinical prediction rules for computed tomographic scanning in senile dementia. Arch Intern Med. 1987; 147.77-80 PubMed
Bradshaw JR, Thomson JL, Campbell MJ.
Computed tomography in the investigation of dementia. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983; 286.277-80 PubMed
Computerized tomographic scanning in cases of dementia. West J Med. 1983; 138.835-7 PubMed
Corey-Bloom J, Thal LJ, Galasko D, Folstein M, Drachman D, Raskind M, et al..
Diagnosis and evaluation of dementia. Neurology. 1995; 45.211-8 PubMed
Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine: a revised statement. American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 1994; 120.872-5 PubMed
Knopman D, Schneider L, Davis K, Talwalker S, Smith F, Hoover T, et al..
Long-term tacrine (Cognex) treatment: effects on nursing home placement and mortality. Tacrine Study Group. Neurology. 1996; 47.166-77 PubMed
Gauthier S, Bouchard R, Lamontagne A, Bailey P, Bergman H, Ratner J, et al..
Tetrahydroaminoacridine-lecithin combination treatment in patients with intermediate-stage Alzheimer's disease. Results of a Canadian double-blind, crossover, multicenter study. N Engl J Med. 1990; 322.1272-6 PubMed
Rogers SL, Doody RS, Mohs RC, Friedhoff LT.
Donepezil improves cognition and global function in Alzheimer disease: a 15-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Donepezil Study Group. Arch Intern Med. 1998; 158.1021-31 PubMed
Rogers SL, Farlow MR, Doody RS, Mohs R, Friedhoff LT.
A 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Donepezil Study Group. Neurology. 1998; 50.136-45 PubMed
Thal LJ, Thomas RG, Sano M.
Tacrine and nursing home placement [Letter]. Neurology. 1997; 49.897-9 PubMed
Small GW, Donohue JA, Brooks RL.
An economic evaluation of donepezil in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Clin Ther. 1998; 20.838-50 PubMed
McRae TD. Evaluation and management of delirium and dementia. Gallo J Reichel's Care of the Elderly: Clinical Aspects of Aging 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999.200-13
Grafström M, Nordberg A, Winblad B.
Abuse is in the eye of the beholder. Report by family members about abuse of demented persons in home care. A total population-based study. Scand J Soc Med. 1993; 21.247-55 PubMed
Mohide EA, Pringle DM, Streiner DL, Gilbert JR, Muir G, Tew M.
A randomized trial of family caregiver support in the home management of dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990; 38.446-54 PubMed
Mittelman MS, Ferris SH, Shulman E, Steinberg G, Levin B.
A family intervention to delay nursing home placement of patients with Alzheimer disease. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1996; 276.1725-31 PubMed
Chiverton P, Caine ED.
Education to assist spouses in coping with Alzheimer's disease. A controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1989; 37.593-8 PubMed
Coyne AC, Potenza M, Broken Nose M. Caregiving and dementia: the impact of telephone helpline services. Am J Alzheimer Dis. 1995; 27-32.
Brodaty H, Peters KE.
Cost effectiveness of a training program for dementia carers. Int Psychogeriatr. 1991; 3.11-22 PubMed
Burdz MP, Eaton WO, Bond JB Jr..
Effect of respite care on dementia and nondementia patients and their caregivers. Psychol Aging. 1988; 3.38-42 PubMed
Temporary institutional respite in dementia cases: who utilizes this form of respite care and what effect does it have? Int Psychogeriatr. 1997; 9.437-48 PubMed
Knight BG, Lutzky SM, Macofsky-Urban F.
A meta-analytic review of interventions for caregiver distress: recommendations for future research. Gerontologist. 1993; 33.240-8 PubMed
Jarvik LF, Wiseman EJ.
A checklist for managing the dementia patient. Geriatrics. 1991; 46.31-4, 39-40 PubMed
Keady J, Nolan M.
A stitch in time. Facilitating proactive interventions with dementia caregivers: the role of community practitioners. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 1995; 2.33-40 PubMed
Snowdon DA, Greiner LH, Mortimer JA, Riley KP, Greiner PA, Markesbery WR.
Brain infarction and the clinical expression of Alzheimer disease. The Nun Study. JAMA. 1997; 277.813-7 PubMed
Swan GE, DeCarli C, Miller BL, Reed T, Wolf PA, Jack LM, et al..
Association of midlife blood pressure to late-life cognitive decline and brain morphology. Neurology. 1998; 51.986-93 PubMed
Kunik ME, Graham DP, Snow-Turek AL, Molinari VA, Orengo CA, Workman RH.
Contribution of cognitive impairment, depression, and psychosis to the outcome of agitated geropsychiatric inpatients with dementia. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1998; 186.299-303 PubMed
Penninx BW, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Simonsick EM, Deeg DJ, Wallace RB.
Depressive symptoms and physical decline in community-dwelling older persons. JAMA. 1998; 279.1720-6 PubMed
Koenig HG, Shelp F, Goli V, Cohen HJ, Blazer DG.
Survival and health care utilization in elderly medical inpatients with major depression. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1989; 37.599-606 PubMed
Gurian B. Some issues specific to depression in late life. J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1997; 30.211-21
Draper B, MacCuspie-Moore C, Brodaty H.
Suicidal ideation and the ‘wish to die’ in dementia patients: the role of depression. Age Ageing. 1998; 27.503-7 PubMed
Rao R, Dening T, Brayne C, Huppert FA.
Suicidal thinking in community residents over eighty. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1997; 12.337-43 PubMed
Bellini M, De Ronchi D, Forti P, Maioli F, Ravaglia G. Suicidal thoughts and dementia. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1998; 27.33-8
Caine E, Lyness J, Conwell Y. Diagnosis of late-life depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1996; 4.Suppl 1S45-S50
Friedland RP, Koss E, Kumar A, Gaine S, Metzler D, Haxby JV, et al..
Motor vehicle crashes in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Ann Neurol. 1988; 24.782-6 PubMed
Drachman DA, Swearer JM.
Driving and Alzheimer's disease: the risk of crashes. Neurology. 1993; 43.2448-56 PubMed
Hunt L, Morris JC, Edwards D, Wilson BS.
Driving performance in persons with mild senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993; 41.747-52 PubMed
Kapust LR, Weintraub S.
To drive or not to drive: preliminary results from road testing of patients with dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1992; 5.210-6 PubMed
Perryman KM, Fitten LJ.
Effects of normal aging on the performance of motor-vehicle operational skills. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1996; 9.136-41 PubMed
Johansson K, Bronge L, Lundberg C, Persson A, Seideman M, Viitanen M.
Can a physician recognize an older driver with increased crash risk potential? J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996; 44.1198-204 PubMed
Dubinsky RM, Stein AC, Lyons K.
Practice parameter: risk of driving and Alzheimer's disease (an evidence-based review): report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2000; 54.2205-11 PubMed
Castle NG, Mor V. Physical restraints in nursing homes: a review of the literature since the Nursing Home Reform Act of 1987. Med Care Res Rev. 1998; 55:139-70; discussion 171-6. [PMID: 9615561]
McHutchion E, Morse JM.
Releasing restraints—a nursing dilemma. J Gerontol Nurs. 1989; 15.16-21 PubMed
Burton LC, German PS, Rovner BW, Brant LJ.
Physical restraint use and cognitive decline among nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992; 40.811-6 PubMed
Miles SH, Irvine P.
Deaths caused by physical restraints. Gerontologist. 1992; 32.762-6 PubMed
Innes EM, Turman WG.
Evaluation of patient falls. QRB Qual Rev Bull. 1983; 9.30-5 PubMed
UCLA Medical Center Standards of Care. Involuntary Physical Restraint. Policy No. 0030. Los Angeles: UCLA Medical Center; 1998.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Accreditation Manual for Hospitals. Volume 1: Standards. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations; 1996.
Ledford L, Mentes J. Research-based Protocol: Restraints. Iowa City, IA: Univ of Iowa Gerontological Nursing Interventions Research Center Research Development and Dissemination Core; 1996.
Hall GR. Research-based Protocol: Alzheimer's Disease and Chronic Dementing Illnesses. Iowa City, IA: Univ of Iowa Gerontological Nursing Interventions Research Center Research Development and Dissemination Core; 1996.
American Medical Directors Association. Dementia: Clinical Practice Guideline, 1998. Columbia, MD: American Medical Directors Assoc; 1998.
Schnelle JF, Simmons SF, Ory MG.
Risk factors that predict staff failure to release nursing home residents from restraints. Gerontologist. 1992; 32.767-70 PubMed