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Mechanism of Cocaine-Induced Hyperthermia in Humans

Craig G. Crandall, PhD; Wanpen Vongpatanasin, MD; and Ronald G. Victor, MD
[+] Article and Author Information

From University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, Dallas, Texas.


Grant Support: By the National Institutes of Health (HL-61388) (Dr. Crandall); the American Heart Association, Texas Affiliate (0060010Y) (Dr. Vongpatanasin); and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (RO-1 DA10064) (Dr. Victor).

Requests for Single Reprints: Craig G. Crandall, PhD, Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, 7232 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, TX 75231; e-mail, CraigCrandall@texashealth.org.

Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.

Current Author Addresses: Dr. Crandall: Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, 7232 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, TX 75231.

Drs. Vongpatanasin and Victor: Divisions of Hypertension and Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, J4.134, Dallas, TX 75390-8586.

Author Contributions: Conception and design: C.G. Crandall, W. Vongpatanasin, R.G. Victor.

Analysis and interpretation of the data: C.G. Crandall, W. Vongpatanasin, R.G. Victor.

Drafting of the article: C.G. Crandall, W. Vongpatanasin, R.G. Victor.

Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: C.G. Crandall, W. Vongpatanasin, R.G. Victor.

Final approval of the article: C.G. Crandall, W. Vongpatanasin, R.G. Victor.

Provision of study materials or patients: C.G. Crandall, W. Vongpatanasin.

Statistical expertise: C.G. Crandall.

Obtaining of funding: C.G. Crandall, W. Vongpatanasin, R.G. Victor.

Administrative, technical, or logistic support: C.G. Crandall, W. Vongpatanasin, R.G. Victor.

Collection and assembly of data: C.G. Crandall.


Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(11):785-791. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-136-11-200206040-00006
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Before heat stress, cocaine had no effect on esophageal temperature compared with lidocaine (36.79 ± 0.01 °C vs. 36.75 ± 0.08 °C). However, cocaine significantly increased mean arterial pressure (93 ± 3 mm Hg vs. 85 ± 3 mm Hg; P = 0.001) and heart rate (74 ± 5 beats/min vs. 67 ± 4 beats/min; P = 0.01). Cocaine had no significant effect on cutaneous vascular conductance before heat stress (9 ± 2% of maximum vs. 7 ± 2% of maximum; P = 0.09).

Topics

cocaine ; fever ; lidocaine

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Figures

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Figure 1.
Responses of average skin temperature and esophageal temperature to cocaine (solid lines) and lidocaine (dotted lines) during whole-body heating.P

Data are the mean (±SE). * < 0.001 for cocaine vs. lidocaine.

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Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2.
Effects of cocaine on autonomic adjustments to heat stress.P

Solid lines indicate cocaine; dotted lines indicate lidocaine. Data are the mean (±SE). * < 0.01 for cocaine vs. lidocaine.

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Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3.
Effects of cocaine on thermal perception.10P

Solid lines indicate cocaine; dotted lines indicate lidocaine. Data are the mean (±SE). The ratings of perceived heating were modified from reference . * < 0.05 for cocaine vs. lidocaine.

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Summary for Patients

Body Heat Management in People Using Cocaine

The summary below is from the full report titled “Mechanism of Cocaine-Induced Hyperthermia in Humans.” It is in the 4 June 2002 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 136, pages 785-791). The authors are CG Crandall, W Vongpatanasin, and RG Victor.

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