The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Editorials |

Postmenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy: How Could We Have Been So Wrong?

Christine Laine, MD, MPH, Senior Deputy Editor
[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

Requests for Single Reprints: Customer Service, American College of Physicians–American Society of Internal Medicine, 190 N. Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106.

Current Author Address: Dr. Laine: American College of Physicians–American Society of Internal Medicine, 190 N. Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106

Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(4):290. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-137-4-200208200-00015
Text Size: A A A

While the public is hungry for medical discoveries that will immediately change clinical practice, evidence typically accumulates piecemeal and practice changes slowly. The early stoppage and release of the main results of the estrogen plus progestin component of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) broke the typical pattern. This very large, methodologically rigorous randomized, controlled trial found that for every 10 000 women taking the hormone combination for 1 year (10 000 person-years), 7 more would have coronary events, 8 more would have strokes, 8 more would have pulmonary emboli, and 8 more would have invasive breast cancer than would 10 000 women taking placebo (1). Benefits of combination hormone therapy were 6 fewer cases of colorectal cancer and 5 fewer hip fractures per 10 000 women. This single study caused a leap in knowledge that should drastically change practices of millions of postmenopausal American women who are taking combination hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (23).

First Page Preview

View Large
First page PDF preview





Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $32.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Related Articles
Related Point of Care
Topic Collections
PubMed Articles
Review and referral (Section 9). Post Reprod Health 2016;22(2):70-1.
Primary Graft Dysfunction after Lung Transplantation. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim 2015;43(6):418-23.
Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.