Males with classic disease have no or very low α-Gal A activity, resulting in severe renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular disease manifestations. Before treatment of uremia became available, the average lifespan of affected males was about 40 years (18). With the advent of renal dialysis or transplantation, the median survival was about 50 years (19). Clinical manifestations (Figures 1 and 2), which usually begin in childhood or adolescence, include intermittent pain in the extremities (acroparesthesias); episodic “Fabry crises” of acute pain lasting hours to days; characteristic skin lesions (angiokeratomas); a corneal opacity that does not affect vision; hypohidrosis; heat, cold, and exercise intolerance; mild proteinuria; and gastrointestinal problems. By adulthood, the renal involvement inevitably results in end-stage renal disease, which requires dialysis or transplantation (20–21). Cardiac manifestations include left ventricular hypertrophy, valvular disease (especially mitral insufficiency), ascending aortic dilatation, coronary artery disease, and conduction abnormalities (Figure 1), leading to congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction (5, 22–24). Cerebrovascular manifestations include early stroke, transient ischemic attacks, white matter lesions, hemiparesis, vertigo or dizziness, and complications of vascular disease (such as diplopia, dysarthria, nystagmus, tinnitus, hemiataxia, memory loss, and hearing loss) (5, 25).