Literature review methods for relevant articles included MEDLINE searches and manual searches of bibliographies of key articles published in English between 1966 and June 2002. Search terms included upper GI bleeding, non-variceal, guidelines, meta-analysis, naso-gastric tube, risk stratification, re-bleeding, mortality, surgery, endoscopy, second-look, clot, stigmata, injection, thermal coaptive, laser, hemostatic clips, proton pump inhibitor, histamine-receptor antagonist, somatostatin, and octreotide. We referred to past reviews, meta-analyses, and published consensus conferences to summarize data up to 1992. New systematic reviews were conducted on data from the past 10 years on the prevalence and natural history of nonvariceal GI bleeding, risk stratification, and various management strategies. Economic considerations were recognized, but the country-specific nature of most cost data limited the review. Data were formally reviewed, including previous consensus opinions (for recommendations 1, 2, 3, and 18), narrative reviews (for recommendations 4, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 19), systematic reviews (for recommendations 5.1, 5.2, 6, and 20), and meta-analyses (for recommendations 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 17).