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Coffee Consumption and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Eduardo Salazar-Martinez, MD, PhD; Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH; Alberto Ascherio, MD, DrPH; JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH; Michael F. Leitzmann, MD, DrPH; Meir J. Stampfer, MD, DrPH; and Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD
[+] Article and Author Information

From Harvard School of Public Health, Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and Mexican Institute of Social Security, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.


Acknowledgments: The authors thank Tricia Li for her expert assistance in data analysis.

Grant Support: By research grants DK58845, HL35464, AA11181, CA87969, and CA55075 from the National Institutes of Health.

Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.

Requests for Single Reprints: Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD, Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115; e-mail, frank.hu@channing.harvard.edu.

Current Author Addresses: Dr. Salazar-Martinez: National Institute of Public Health, Av. Universidad 655, Col. Sta. Maria Ahuacatitlánin, 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

Drs. Willett, Ascherio, and Hu: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.

Dr. Manson: Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02215.

Dr. Leitzmann: Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, MSC 7232, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Dr. Stampfer: Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.

Author Contributions: Conception and design: E. Salazar-Martinez, W.C. Willett, A. Ascherio, J.E. Manson, M.F. Leitzmann, F.B. Hu.

Analysis and interpretation of the data: E. Salazar-Martinez, W.C. Willett, A. Ascherio, J.E. Manson, M.F. Leitzmann, M.J. Stampfer, F.B. Hu.

Drafting of the article: E. Salazar-Martinez, F.B. Hu.

Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: E. Salazar-Martinez, W.C. Willett, A. Ascherio, J.E. Manson, M.F. Leitzmann, M.J. Stampfer, F.B. Hu.

Final approval of the article: E. Salazar-Martinez, A. Ascherio, J.E. Manson, M.F. Leitzmann, M.J. Stampfer, F.B. Hu.

Statistical expertise: M.F. Leitzmann, M.J. Stampfer, F.B. Hu.

Obtaining of funding: W.C. Willett, J.E. Manson, F.B. Hu.

Administrative, technical, or logistic support: J.E. Manson, F.B. Hu.

Collection and assembly of data: J.E. Manson, F.B. Hu.


Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(1):1-8. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-1-200401060-00005
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The average consumption of regular coffee in the NHS decreased from 2.3 cups per day in 1980 to 1.6 cups per day in 1994. In the HPFS, the average consumption remained largely unchanged (1.4 cups per day in 1986 and 1.3 cups per day in 1994). We documented 1333 new cases of type 2 diabetes in men during 12 years of follow-up and 4085 new cases of type 2 diabetes in women during 18 years of follow-up. In both cohorts, higher coffee consumption was strongly associated with cigarette smoking and alcohol use (Table 1). Coffee intake was positively associated with intakes of total and saturated fats and magnesium and inversely associated with physical activity and intakes of cereal fiber, glycemic load, and tea. Coffee intake was not appreciably related to body mass index in either cohort.

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Summary for Patients

Coffee Drinkers at Lower Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

The summary below is from the full report titled “Coffee Consumption and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” It is in the 6 January 2004 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 140, pages 1-8). The authors are E. Salazar-Martinez, W.C. Willett, A. Ascherio, J.E. Manson, M.F. Leitzmann, M.J. Stampfer, and F.B. Hu.

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