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Association of the Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in U.S. Adults FREE

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The summary below is from the full report titled “The Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in U.S. Adults.” It is in the 3 February 2004 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 140, pages 167–174). The authors are J. Chen, P. Muntner, L.L. Hamm, D.W. Jones, V. Batuman, V. Fonseca, P.K. Whelton, and J. He.


Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(3):I-39. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-3-200402030-00002
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What is the problem and what is known about it so far?

Chronic kidney disease is a condition in which kidney function gets progressively more abnormal over time. The metabolic syndrome is a condition in which people are obese and have high blood pressure, high triglyceride levels (a bad type of fat in the blood), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (“good” cholesterol), and high blood sugar levels. People with the metabolic syndrome are at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. It is known that cardiovascular disease puts people at risk for chronic kidney disease, but it is not known whether the metabolic syndrome puts people at risk for chronic kidney disease.

Why did the researchers do this particular study?

To examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease.

Who was studied?

More than 6000 U.S. adults who participated in a large national study called the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

How was the study done?

Using tests performed in NHANES III, the researchers determined whether study participants had each of the 5 components of the metabolic syndrome. They also determined whether each participant had chronic kidney disease by using 2 measurements called the glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria.

What did the researchers find?

The risk for having chronic kidney disease increased as people went from having 0 to 5 of the 5 components of the metabolic syndrome.

What were the limitations of the study?

Since blood pressure and blood sugar levels are both associated with kidney disease, it is difficult to separate the effects of the metabolic syndrome from those of the 2 known risk factors for kidney disease. This study does not tell us whether treating the metabolic syndrome would prevent chronic kidney disease.

What are the implications of the study?

Chronic kidney disease might be another negative consequence of the metabolic syndrome.

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