Alcohol misuse damages health. It can hurt relationships; increase risks for accidents and violence; and cause problems with the liver, brain, and heart. In the United States, a form of alcohol misuse known as “risky” or “harmful” drinking is defined as more than 7 drinks/week or more than 3 drinks/occasion for women and more than 14 drinks/week or more than 4 drinks/occasion for men. This level of drinking does not usually signal abuse or dependence, but it does put people at risk for future problems. Several standard questions can help identify people who have alcohol problems. They include asking about the following: frequency and typical quantity of drinking, frequency of exceeding recommended drinks/occasion, drinking first thing in the morning, feeling guilty about drinking, feeling a need to cut back on drinking, and feeling that others are criticizing you for drinking too much. Brief advice by doctors and other health professionals can help people without alcohol abuse or dependence cut back or stop drinking if they are drinking too much. Yet, many doctors do not routinely ask patients about their drinking habits and do not give patients with excessive drinking or alcohol problems advice about ways to cut back or quit. The USPSTF wanted to see whether research supports including screening and counseling for alcohol misuse in routine primary care visits. Screening means looking for a condition in patients who do not have symptoms or signs of that condition. Screening is different from looking for alcohol problems in patients who have symptoms or signs suggesting alcohol problems, which doctors clearly should do.