The full content of Annals is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Academia and the Profession |

Compensation and Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine: Is There Equity?

Arlene S. Ash, PhD; Phyllis L. Carr, MD; Richard Goldstein, PhD; and Robert H. Friedman, MD*
[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

From Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

*Drs. Ash and Carr contributed equally to this manuscript.

Acknowledgments: The authors thank Dr. Mark Moskowitz, deceased, for his thoughtful insights and contributions to this project. Thirty questions used in the survey are based on work by Drs. Linda Fried and Clair Francomano at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.

Grant Support: By the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, grant no. 019600.

Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.

Requests for Single Reprints: Phyllis Carr, MD, Office of Student Affairs, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, L109, Boston, MA 02118; e-mail, plcarr@bu.edu.

Current Author Addresses: Dr. Ash: General Internal Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, DOB 1108, Boston, MA 02118.

Dr. Carr: Office of Student Affairs, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, L109, Boston, MA 02118.

Dr. Goldstein: 37 Kirkwood Road, Brighton, MA 02135.

Dr. Friedman: MED Info Systems Unit, Boston University School of Medicine, 715 Albany Street, DOB 1102, Boston, MA 02118.

Ann Intern Med. 2004;141(3):205-212. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-141-3-200408030-00009
Text Size: A A A

Background: Women have been entering academic medicine in numbers at least equal to their male colleagues for several decades. Most studies have found that women do not advance in academic rank as fast as men and that their salaries are not as great. These studies, however, have typically not had the data to examine equity, that is, do women receive similar rewards for similar achievement?

Objective: To examine equity in promotion and salary for female versus male medical school faculty nationally.

Design: Mailed survey questionnaire.

Setting: 24 randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States.

Participants: 1814 full-time U.S. medical school faculty in 1995–1996, stratified by sex, specialty, and graduation cohort.

Measurements: Promotion and compensation of academic medical faculty.

Results: Among the 1814 faculty respondents (response rate, 60%), female faculty were less likely to be full professors than were men with similar professional roles and achievement. For example, 66% of men but only 47% of women (P < 0.01) with 15 to 19 years of seniority were full professors. Large deficits in rank for senior faculty women were confirmed in logistic models that accounted for a wide range of other professional characteristics and achievements, including total career publications, years of seniority, hours worked per week, department type, minority status, medical versus nonmedical final degree, and school. Similar multivariable modeling also confirmed gender inequity in compensation. Although base salaries of nonphysician faculty are gender comparable, female physician faculty have a noticeable deficit (−$11 691; P = 0.01). Furthermore, both physician and nonphysician women with greater seniority have larger salary deficits (−$485 per year of seniority; P = 0.01).

Limitations: This is a cross-sectional study of a longitudinal phenomenon. No data are available for faculty who are no longer working full-time in academic medicine, and all data are self-reported.

Conclusions: Female medical school faculty neither advance as rapidly nor are compensated as well as professionally similar male colleagues. Deficits for female physicians are greater than those for nonphysician female faculty, and for both physicians and nonphysicians, women's deficits are greater for faculty with more seniority.





Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).


Submit a Comment/Letter
Submit a Comment/Letter

Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.


Buy Now for $32.00

to gain full access to the content and tools.

Want to Subscribe?

Learn more about subscription options

Topic Collections
Forgot your password?
Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.