Chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) occurs in men and is characterized by persistent discomfort or pain in the pelvic area that lasts several months, often longer. The discomfort is usually at the base of the penis and around the anus and lower back. Sometimes it spreads into the testes. Some patients have pain with ejaculation, and others may have pain or an urgency or hesitancy when they pass urine, as well as a poor urinary stream. The cause of CP/CPPS is not known. Physicians often try various therapies, including antibiotics to treat hidden or persistent infections in the prostate gland and α-blockers to relax the muscle tissue of the prostate and the outlet of the bladder. Thus far, few research studies have tested whether either of these treatments helps relieve symptoms of CP/CPPS.