There are also potential harms associated with screening. The harms cited by the Task Force were related to false-positive test results (for example, anxiety), knowledge of HCV status (for example, discrimination), medical evaluation (for example, complications of liver biopsy), and treatment (for example, side effects) (5–6). Most of these potential harms can be prevented or substantially reduced. For example, there is no reason for a patient to receive a false-positive result on a screening test. All positive results on HCV screening tests should be confirmed with additional, more specific testing (1–2, 17–18), which is routinely available to clinicians. This recommendation, which is consistent with testing practices for hepatitis B surface antigen and HIV antibody, minimizes unnecessary medical visits and psychological harm for persons with false-positive results on screening assays. In addition, it ensures that counseling, medical referral, and evaluation are targeted to patients confirmed as having been infected with HCV. Cost-efficient methods for routine confirmatory HCV testing have been developed (17).