There are also potential harms associated with screening. The harms cited by the Task Force were related to false-positive test results (for example, anxiety), knowledge of HCV status (for example, discrimination), medical evaluation (for example, complications of liver biopsy), and treatment (for example, side effects) (5 - 6). Most of these potential harms can be prevented or substantially reduced. For example, there is no reason for a patient to receive a false-positive result on a screening test. All positive results on HCV screening tests should be confirmed with additional, more specific testing (1 - 2,17 - 18), which is routinely available to clinicians. This recommendation, which is consistent with testing practices for hepatitis B surface antigen and HIV antibody, minimizes unnecessary medical visits and psychological harm for persons with false-positive results on screening assays. In addition, it ensures that counseling, medical referral, and evaluation are targeted to patients confirmed as having been infected with HCV. Cost-efficient methods for routine confirmatory HCV testing have been developed (17).