Table 4 presents the results of our analyses comparing the quality of care between the standardized VHA and national samples, adjusting for age and for the number of chronic conditions, acute conditions, and outpatient visits. Sixteen of the 348 indicators had no eligible patients in either sample, leaving 294 indicators and 596 patients on which to base the VHA scores and 330 indicators and 992 patients on which to base the national scores. Overall, VHA patients were more likely than patients in the national sample to receive the care specified by the indicators (67% vs. 51%; difference, 16 percentage points [CI, 14 to 18 percentage points]). Performance in the VHA outpaced that of the national sample for both chronic care (72% vs. 59%; difference, 13 percentage points [CI, 10 to 17 percentage points]) and preventive care (64% vs. 44%; difference, 20 percentage points [CI, 12 to 28 percentage points]), but not for acute care (53% vs. 55%; difference, −2 percentage points [CI, −9 to −4 percentage points]). In particular, the VHA sample received significantly better care for depression, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The VHA also performed consistently better across the entire spectrum of care, including screening, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. These differences in quality of care held true when we considered only those indicators (n = 72) supported by randomized, controlled trials (57% vs. 45%; difference, 12 percentage points [CI, 3 to 20 percentage points]).