To determine ICD-related costs, we developed a template for ICD placement, follow-up visits, and battery replacement based on practice standards at Duke University Medical Center. In our primary or base-case analysis, follow-up visits were scheduled at 3-month intervals and batteries were replaced every 5 years following the implantation. Rates of complications were based on a publication by Kennergren (17) and the Medtronic product performance report for the first quarter in 2003 (18). Professional fees for ICD placement were estimated by using North Carolina Medicare reimbursement rates. Hospital costs for ICD placement and common ICD complications (lead fractures, lead dislodgement, pocket hematoma, infection, cardiac perforation, and pneumothorax) were estimated by using cost data from Duke University Medical Center for patients with diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) of 514 or 515 (placement) and 110, 111, 144, or 145 (complications).