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Brief Communication: Successful Treatment of Pure Red-Cell Aplasia with an Anti–Interleukin-2 Receptor Antibody (Daclizumab) FREE

Elaine M. Sloand, MD; Phillip Scheinberg, MD; Jaroslaw Maciejewski, MD; and Neal S. Young, MD
[+] Article and Author Information

From National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.


Acknowledgments: The authors thank Colin Wu, who provided statistical expertise and helped develop stopping rules for the study, and Barbara Weinstein, who screened and recruited patients and managed the data for the study.

Grant Support: No outside funding was received for this study.

Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.

Requests for Single Reprints: Elaine M. Sloand, MD, Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 10 CRC 4E5230, Bethesda, MD 20892; e-mail, sloande@nih.gov.

Current Author Addresses: Dr. Sloand: Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 10 CRC 4E5230, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Drs. Scheinberg and Young: Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 10 CRC 3E, 3-5142, Bethesda, MD 20892.

Dr. Maciejewski: Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Taussig Cancer Center, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 22195.

Author Contributions: Conception and design: E.M. Sloand, J. Maciejewski, N.S. Young.

Analysis and interpretation of the data: E.M. Sloand, J. Maciejewski, N.S. Young.

Drafting of the article: E.M. Sloand, J. Maciejewski, N.S. Young.

Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: E.M. Sloand, N.S. Young.

Final approval of the article: E.M. Sloand, J. Maciejewski, N.S. Young.

Provision of study materials or patients: E.M. Sloand, P. Scheinberg, J. Maciejewski, N.S. Young.

Obtaining of funding: N.S. Young.

Administrative, technical, or logistic support: E.M. Sloand, N.S. Young.

Collection and assembly of data: E.M. Sloand.


Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(3):181-185. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-144-3-200602070-00006
Text Size: A A A
Editors' Notes
Context

  • Pure red-cell aplasia (PRCA) seems to have an autoimmune pathophysiology. Currently available treatments are relatively toxic. Daclizumab is a genetically engineered human IgG1 that blocks the interleukin-2 receptor necessary for clonal expansion of activated T cells.

Contribution

  • Fifteen patients with PRCA were treated with daclizumab. Forty percent achieved normal hemoglobin levels within 18 months of starting therapy. The drug produced little toxicity other than minor skin rash.

Implications

  • Daclizumab may provide a nontoxic alternative for treating a severe, relatively refractory cause of anemia.

Cautions

  • This is a small, unblinded study.

—The Editors

Acquired pure red-cell aplasia (PRCA) is characterized by isolated severe anemia and reticulocytopenia (1) and by absent or markedly diminished erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, which is otherwise normal. It is associated with many disorders, including parvovirus B19 infection (2), lymphoproliferative disorders (34) rheumatologic diseases (5), thymoma (6), and (rarely) erythropoietin administration due to antierythropoietin antibody formation (7). Most cases of PRCA are idiopathic. With the exception of parvovirus infection (8), which responds to intravenous immunoglobulin, PRCA seems to have an autoimmune pathophysiology. Antibodies directed against early erythroid precursor cells (910) and cytotoxic T cells with specificity for erythroid progenitors (11) have been described. In early studies in a patient with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, malignant T lymphocytes inhibited erythroid colony formation (12), which was reversed in vitro by antithymocyte globulin and complement. Immune-mediated PRCA shares many clinical associations and pathophysiologic mechanisms with aplastic anemia. In PRCA associated with thymoma, a thymectomy may produce responses in as many as 40% of patients (13). Plasmapheresis has successfully treated PRCA associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and after major ABO-mismatched bone marrow transplantation (14). Various immunosuppressive treatments have been reported as effective, such as corticosteroids, splenectomy (15), thymectomy (16), cyclophosphamide (1718), and azathioprine (19). Corticosteroids produce responses in about 50% of patients (20), but long-term use is associated with clinically significant morbidity. Patients have responded to treatments for large granular lymphocytic leukemia, as well as cyclosporine alone. In PRCA associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemia, 28 of 47 patients treated with cyclosporine (21) had a hematologic response that may reflect the responsiveness of the underlying disorder to cyclosporine. Of 9 steroid-refractory patients, 6 patients (66%) responded to antithymocyte globulin (22). Less toxic but equally effective therapeutic strategies could avoid the need for hospitalization (required for antithymocyte globulin) and monitoring of drug levels (required for cyclosporine) and avoid potentially serious collateral organ damage (seen with long-term use of corticosteroids). Recently, responses to the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) (2324) have been reported in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and in PRCA associated with erythropoietin use. In both cases, PRCA has been attributed to antibodies against erythroid precursors.

We have reported that daclizumab is effective for moderate aplastic anemia, producing durable responses in more than 50% of patients (25). Unlike antithymocyte globulin, which requires hospitalization and has several side effects, daclizumab can be administered in an outpatient setting (25) and has little toxicity. Daclizumab is a genetically engineered human IgG1 incorporating the antigen-binding regions of a parent murine monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the 55-kilodalton α-chain of the heterotrimeric interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (26). The IL-2 receptor is present on activated T cells and is required for their clonal expansion and continued viability. Blockade of IL-2 receptor results in decreased activation and proliferation of T-cell clones. The mechanism of action of anti–IL-2 receptor monoclonal antibody is probably similar to that of antithymocyte globulin but has the theoretical benefit of specifically targeting activated lymphocytes. Daclizumab was associated with little toxicity both in our study and in its wider use in solid organ transplantation. In our current study, we performed an open-label, pilot trial of daclizumab in PRCA to assess its toxicity and efficacy.

We entered eligible patients with PRCA into the study after obtaining informed consent, according to a protocol approved by the institutional review board of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. We treated all consecutive patients older than 7 years of age with PRCA, as defined by anemia requiring transfusion, reticulocyte count of 60 × 109 cells/L or less, absent or diminished erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, and an untransfused hemoglobin level less than 100 g/L. We used the average of 3 blood count measurements that we obtained within a 2-week period before enrollment to assess eligibility for entry into the study. We defined transfusion dependence as a requirement of at least 2 units of red cells per month for at least 2 consecutive months before enrollment. We excluded patients with a current diagnosis or history of the myelodysplastic syndrome, abnormal cytogenetics, Fanconi anemia, lymphoma, or other lymphoproliferative disease. Patients received daclizumab, 1 mg/kg of body weight, infused intravenously every other week for a total of 5 doses. We defined response at 3 months by transfusion independence or a stable increase in hemoglobin level by 15 g/L, absolute reticulocyte count by 50 × 109 cells/L or more, or both. Patients had a bone marrow evaluation with cytogenetics performed before and at 1 month after treatment. We obtained weekly blood counts during the course of the study. All participants visited the National Institutes of Health at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the last dose of daclizumab and annually thereafter. We administered red-cell transfusions to maintain the hemoglobin level greater than 70 g/L or at a higher level if necessary to control symptoms of anemia.

No outside funding was received for this study.

Patients

We treated 15 patients (9 men and 6 women) with PRCA with daclizumab (Table). Of these patients, 11 patients previously received immunosuppressive therapies but did not respond. These therapies included antithymocyte globulin, corticosteroid, and cyclosporine. The average age was 44 years, and the time from diagnosis to treatment ranged from 3 months to 10 years. All patients were transfusion-dependent before daclizumab administration. One patient previously had a short-lived hematologic improvement after removal of a thymoma. The serum specimens of all patients were negative for the presence of circulating parvovirus by DNA dot-blot hybridization.

Table Jump PlaceholderTable.  Patient Characteristics and Response to Therapy
Hematologic Response

Of the 15 patients who entered into the protocol, 6 patients (40%) responded hematologically within 90 days of receiving the last dose of daclizumab. All patients achieved a normal hemoglobin level by an average of 18 months after treatment (Table and Figure). An additional patient had a transient partial response with appearance of diminished but normal erythroid precursors in the bone marrow. This patient received an additional course of daclizumab but did not respond. Patient 1 subsequently developed myelodysplasia. One patient who did not respond to daclizumab was later successfully treated with (and responded to) horse antithymocyte globulin. Patients whose marrow showed a total absence of erythroid precursors seemed less likely to respond to daclizumab. Monoclonal antibody treatment was associated with little toxicity except for a cutaneous eruption that occurred 3 months after the last of 5 treatments in 2 patients. These patients required 3 weeks of systemic corticosteroid therapy, and their conditions cleared completely about 3 months after the last daclizumab infusion. The rash was characterized pathologically by focal spongiosis and dermal lymphocytic infiltration, and it cleared completely and did not recur after a 3-week course of oral steroid treatment. No infectious, hemolytic, or hepatic complications occurred. Bone marrow examination was normal in all responders after treatment. All nonresponders except for patients 1 and 2 (who subsequently did not respond to antithymocyte globulin) received a second course of daclizumab, and all but 1 patient did not respond.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure.
Clinical course of 6 responding patients after daclizumab treatment.

Fifteen patients with pure red-cell aplasia were treated with daclizumab, 1 mg/kg of body weight, as described in the Methods section. Reticulocyte count, hemoglobin level, and transfusion history are seen for each patient. To convert hemoglobin values from g/dL to g/L, multiply value by 10.

Grahic Jump Location

Three patients (patients 6, 10, and 11) relapsed in the 4 months after the initial course of daclizumab, but they promptly responded when re-treated with the same regimen and have remained transfusion-independent 4 to 31 months later.

In our pilot trial, we demonstrate the efficacy of daclizumab in treating some patients with acquired PRCA. In 6 cases, treatment led to long-term responses, although some patients required additional courses of therapy. We considered all participants who were enrolled in the trial to have acquired PRCA because of previously normal hemoglobin values. Although we cannot determine an accurate relapse rate because of the few patients involved, those 2 recurrences that responded to re-infusion of daclizumab suggest that some cases may require periodic re-treatment. Further long-term observation of these patients will help establish the optimal dosing regimen for daclizumab and the need for further immunosuppression.

Substantial laboratory and clinical evidence supports a role for both antibody- or cellular-mediated immunity in suppressing erythropoiesis. Therapies directed against cellular (antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine) and humoral immunity (plasmapheresis and rituximab) have been effective (2729). Where an autoantibody has been demonstrated, the target antigen has generally not been established, except in cases related to recombinant erythropoietin administration (3031) and due to the production of alloantibodies after major ABO-mismatched hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (3233). Suppression of erythropoiesis by T cells may be more common than humoral-mediated red-cell aplasia (5). The frequent clinical association of PRCA with lymphoproliferative disorders (especially large granular lymphocytic leukemia [34] and thymoma [6]), together with laboratory evidence that lymphocytes from these patients suppress erythropoiesis in colony culture, supports a pathophysiologic role of the T cell (3537). Whether responsiveness to individual therapeutic regimens necessarily correlates with the pathophysiology of disease is unclear. Arguing against tailoring the therapy to the “apparent” pathophysiology of the disease are successes in treating antibody-mediated PRCA related to erythropoietin use with cyclosporine and cyclophosphamide (anti–T-cell agents), as well the responsiveness of PRCA of all etiologies to corticosteroids. Reliance on in vitro assays to designate an individual patient's PRCA as either humoral-mediated or T-cell–mediated may not recognize the complexity of the immune system and the interplay between T cells and B cells in producing an immune response, as well as uncertainties in extrapolating in vitro experiments to clinically relevant mechanisms. Why 1 patient who had previously not responded to antithymocyte globulin improved with daclizumab is unclear. Daclizumab, an antibody with specificity to activated lymphocytes, might be more effective in eliminating the offending T-cell clone. We have seen similar rare instances of responses to daclizumab in patients with aplastic anemia who did not respond to antithymocyte globulin.

Nonetheless, daclizumab used as an anti–T-cell agent seems to be effective in a substantial proportion of patients with PRCA in whom other forms of therapy fail, including therapies directed against both cellular and humoral immune systems. Success in treating naive patients would probably be even greater. Daclizumab may be a less toxic alternative in patients who respond to corticosteroid or cyclosporine therapy but relapse when these treatments are tapered or discontinued.

Young N.  Pure red cell aplasia. Lichtmann M Williams Hematology. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006; 437-47.
 
Young NS, Abkowitz JL, Luzzatto L.  New insights into the pathophysiology of acquired cytopenias. Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program). 2000; 18-38. PubMed
 
Cobcroft R.  Pure red cell aplasia associated with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2001; 113:260. PubMed
 
Go RS, Li CY, Tefferi A, Phyliky RL.  Acquired pure red cell aplasia associated with lymphoproliferative disease of granular T lymphocytes. Blood. 2001; 98:483-5. PubMed
 
Charles RJ, Sabo KM, Kidd PG, Abkowitz JL.  The pathophysiology of pure red cell aplasia: implications for therapy. Blood. 1996; 87:4831-8. PubMed
 
Jacobs EM, Hutter RV, Pool JL, Ley AB.  Benign thymoma and selective erythroid aplasia of the bone marrow. Cancer. 1959; 12:47-57. PubMed
 
Bennett CL, Cournoyer D, Carson KR, Rossert J, Luminari S, Evens AM. et al.  Long-term outcome of individuals with pure red cell aplasia and antierythropoietin antibodies in patients treated with recombinant epoetin: a follow-up report from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (RADAR) Project. Blood. 2005; 106:3343-7. PubMed
 
Brown KE, Young NS.  Parvoviruses and bone marrow failure. Stem Cells. 1996; 14:151-63. PubMed
 
Messner HA, Fauser AA, Curtis JE, Dotten D.  Control of antibody-mediated pure red-cell aplasia by plasmapheresis. N Engl J Med. 1981; 304:1334-8. PubMed
 
Means RT Jr, Dessypris EN, Krantz SB.  Treatment of refractory pure red cell aplasia with cyclosporine A: disappearance of IgG inhibitor associated with clinical response. Br J Haematol. 1991; 78:114-9. PubMed
 
Mori KL, Furukawa H, Hayashi K, Sugimoto KJ, Oshimi K.  Pure red cell aplasia associated with expansion of CD3+ CD8+ granular lymphocytes expressing cytotoxicity against HLA-E+ cells. Br J Haematol. 2003; 123:147-53. PubMed
 
Hoffman R, Kopel S, Hsu SD, Dainiak N, Zanjani ED.  T cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: presence in bone marrow and peripheral blood of cells that suppress erythropoiesis in vitro. Blood. 1978; 52:255-60. PubMed
 
Murakawa T, Nakajima J, Sato H, Tanaka M, Takamoto S, Fukayama M.  Thymoma associated with pure red-cell aplasia: clinical features and prognosis. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2002; 10:150-4. PubMed
 
Young NS, Klein HG, Griffith P, Nienhuis AW.  A trial of immunotherapy in aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia. J Clin Apher. 1983; 1:95-103. PubMed
 
Clark DA, Dessypris EN, Krantz SB.  Studies on pure red cell aplasia. XI. Results of immunosuppressive treatment of 37 patients. Blood. 1984; 63:277-86. PubMed
 
al-Mondhiry H, Zanjani ED, Spivack M, Zalusky R, Gordon AS.  Pure red cell aplasia and thymoma: loss of serum inhibitor of erythropoiesis following thymectomy. Blood. 1971; 38:576-82. PubMed
 
Marmont A.  Is antilymphocytic globulin a better immunosuppressant than cyclophosphamide for pure red cell aplasia? [Letter]. Br J Haematol. 1984; 56:680-2. PubMed
 
Yamada O, Mizoguchi H, Oshimi K.  Cyclophosphamide therapy for pure red cell aplasia associated with granular lymphocyte-proliferative disorders. Br J Haematol. 1997; 97:392-9. PubMed
 
Fisch P, Handgretinger R, Schaefer HE.  Pure red cell aplasia. Br J Haematol. 2000; 111:1010-22. PubMed
 
Marmont AM.  Therapy of pure red cell aplasia. Semin Hematol. 1991; 28:285-97. PubMed
 
Lacy MQ, Kurtin PJ, Tefferi A.  Pure red cell aplasia: association with large granular lymphocyte leukemia and the prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities. Blood. 1996; 87:3000-6. PubMed
 
Abkowitz JL, Powell JS, Nakamura JM, Kadin ME, Adamson JW.  Pure red cell aplasia: response to therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin. Am J Hematol. 1986; 23:363-71. PubMed
 
Auner HW, Wölfler A, Beham-Schmid C, Strunk D, Linkesch W, Sill H.  Restoration of erythropoiesis by rituximab in an adult patient with primary acquired pure red cell aplasia refractory to conventional treatment [Letter]. Br J Haematol. 2002; 116:727-8. PubMed
 
Batlle M, Ribera JM, Oriol A, Plensa E, Millá F, Feliu E.  Successful response to rituximab in a patient with pure red cell aplasia complicating chronic lymphocytic leukaemia [Letter]. Br J Haematol. 2002; 118:1192-3. PubMed
 
Maciejewski JP, Sloand EM, Nunez O, Boss C, Young NS.  Recombinant humanized anti-IL-2 receptor antibody (daclizumab) produces responses in patients with moderate aplastic anemia. Blood. 2003; 102:3584-6. PubMed
 
Carswell CI, Plosker GL, Wagstaff AJ.  Daclizumab: a review of its use in the management of organ transplantation. BioDrugs. 2001; 15:745-73. PubMed
 
Krantz SB.  Diagnosis and treatment of pure red cell aplasia. Med Clin North Am. 1976; 60:945-58. PubMed
 
Means RT Jr, Krantz SB.  Inhibition of human erythroid colony-forming units by gamma interferon can be corrected by recombinant human erythropoietin. Blood. 1991; 78:2564-7. PubMed
 
Krantz SB, Moore WH, Zaentz SD.  Studies on red cell aplasia. V. Presence of erythroblast cytotoxicity in G-globulin fraction of plasma. J Clin Invest. 1973; 52:324-36. PubMed
 
Gershon SK, Luksenburg H, Coté TR, Braun MM.  Pure red-cell aplasia and recombinant erythropoietin [Letter]. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1584-6; author reply 1584-6. [PMID: 12015400]
 
Rossert J, Casadevall N, Eckardt KU.  Anti-erythropoietin antibodies and pure red cell aplasia. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004; 15:398-406. PubMed
 
Freund LG, Hippe E, Strandgaard S, Pelus LM, Erslev AJ.  Complete remission in pure red cell aplasia after plasmapheresis. Scand J Haematol. 1985; 35:315-8. PubMed
 
Mangan KF, Shadduck RK, Winkelstein A.  Plasmapheresis and antithymocyte globulin treatment of chronic refractory pure red cell aplasia: correlation of clinical results with in vitro erythroid culture studies [Abstract]. Clin Res. 1982; 30:323A.
 
Masuda M, Arai Y, Okamura T, Wada M, Mizoguchi H.  Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) with thymoma: a possible distinct clinical entity distinct from large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia [Letter]. Am J Hematol. 2000; 63:102. PubMed
 
Mangan KF, Volkin R, Winkelstein A.  Autoreactive erythroid progenitor-T suppressor cells in the pure red cell aplasia associated with thymoma and panhypogammaglobulinemia. Am J Hematol. 1986; 23:167-73. PubMed
 
DeSevilla E, Forrest JV, Zivnuska FR, Sagel SS.  Metastatic thymoma with myasthenia gravis and pure red cell aplasia. Cancer. 1975; 36:1154-7. PubMed
 
Hirst E, Robertson TI.  The syndrome of thymoma and erythroblastopenic anemia. A review of 56 cases including 3 case reports. Medicine (Baltimore). 1967; 46:225-64. PubMed
 

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure.
Clinical course of 6 responding patients after daclizumab treatment.

Fifteen patients with pure red-cell aplasia were treated with daclizumab, 1 mg/kg of body weight, as described in the Methods section. Reticulocyte count, hemoglobin level, and transfusion history are seen for each patient. To convert hemoglobin values from g/dL to g/L, multiply value by 10.

Grahic Jump Location

Tables

Table Jump PlaceholderTable.  Patient Characteristics and Response to Therapy

References

Young N.  Pure red cell aplasia. Lichtmann M Williams Hematology. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006; 437-47.
 
Young NS, Abkowitz JL, Luzzatto L.  New insights into the pathophysiology of acquired cytopenias. Hematology (Am Soc Hematol Educ Program). 2000; 18-38. PubMed
 
Cobcroft R.  Pure red cell aplasia associated with small lymphocytic lymphoma. Br J Haematol. 2001; 113:260. PubMed
 
Go RS, Li CY, Tefferi A, Phyliky RL.  Acquired pure red cell aplasia associated with lymphoproliferative disease of granular T lymphocytes. Blood. 2001; 98:483-5. PubMed
 
Charles RJ, Sabo KM, Kidd PG, Abkowitz JL.  The pathophysiology of pure red cell aplasia: implications for therapy. Blood. 1996; 87:4831-8. PubMed
 
Jacobs EM, Hutter RV, Pool JL, Ley AB.  Benign thymoma and selective erythroid aplasia of the bone marrow. Cancer. 1959; 12:47-57. PubMed
 
Bennett CL, Cournoyer D, Carson KR, Rossert J, Luminari S, Evens AM. et al.  Long-term outcome of individuals with pure red cell aplasia and antierythropoietin antibodies in patients treated with recombinant epoetin: a follow-up report from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (RADAR) Project. Blood. 2005; 106:3343-7. PubMed
 
Brown KE, Young NS.  Parvoviruses and bone marrow failure. Stem Cells. 1996; 14:151-63. PubMed
 
Messner HA, Fauser AA, Curtis JE, Dotten D.  Control of antibody-mediated pure red-cell aplasia by plasmapheresis. N Engl J Med. 1981; 304:1334-8. PubMed
 
Means RT Jr, Dessypris EN, Krantz SB.  Treatment of refractory pure red cell aplasia with cyclosporine A: disappearance of IgG inhibitor associated with clinical response. Br J Haematol. 1991; 78:114-9. PubMed
 
Mori KL, Furukawa H, Hayashi K, Sugimoto KJ, Oshimi K.  Pure red cell aplasia associated with expansion of CD3+ CD8+ granular lymphocytes expressing cytotoxicity against HLA-E+ cells. Br J Haematol. 2003; 123:147-53. PubMed
 
Hoffman R, Kopel S, Hsu SD, Dainiak N, Zanjani ED.  T cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: presence in bone marrow and peripheral blood of cells that suppress erythropoiesis in vitro. Blood. 1978; 52:255-60. PubMed
 
Murakawa T, Nakajima J, Sato H, Tanaka M, Takamoto S, Fukayama M.  Thymoma associated with pure red-cell aplasia: clinical features and prognosis. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2002; 10:150-4. PubMed
 
Young NS, Klein HG, Griffith P, Nienhuis AW.  A trial of immunotherapy in aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia. J Clin Apher. 1983; 1:95-103. PubMed
 
Clark DA, Dessypris EN, Krantz SB.  Studies on pure red cell aplasia. XI. Results of immunosuppressive treatment of 37 patients. Blood. 1984; 63:277-86. PubMed
 
al-Mondhiry H, Zanjani ED, Spivack M, Zalusky R, Gordon AS.  Pure red cell aplasia and thymoma: loss of serum inhibitor of erythropoiesis following thymectomy. Blood. 1971; 38:576-82. PubMed
 
Marmont A.  Is antilymphocytic globulin a better immunosuppressant than cyclophosphamide for pure red cell aplasia? [Letter]. Br J Haematol. 1984; 56:680-2. PubMed
 
Yamada O, Mizoguchi H, Oshimi K.  Cyclophosphamide therapy for pure red cell aplasia associated with granular lymphocyte-proliferative disorders. Br J Haematol. 1997; 97:392-9. PubMed
 
Fisch P, Handgretinger R, Schaefer HE.  Pure red cell aplasia. Br J Haematol. 2000; 111:1010-22. PubMed
 
Marmont AM.  Therapy of pure red cell aplasia. Semin Hematol. 1991; 28:285-97. PubMed
 
Lacy MQ, Kurtin PJ, Tefferi A.  Pure red cell aplasia: association with large granular lymphocyte leukemia and the prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities. Blood. 1996; 87:3000-6. PubMed
 
Abkowitz JL, Powell JS, Nakamura JM, Kadin ME, Adamson JW.  Pure red cell aplasia: response to therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin. Am J Hematol. 1986; 23:363-71. PubMed
 
Auner HW, Wölfler A, Beham-Schmid C, Strunk D, Linkesch W, Sill H.  Restoration of erythropoiesis by rituximab in an adult patient with primary acquired pure red cell aplasia refractory to conventional treatment [Letter]. Br J Haematol. 2002; 116:727-8. PubMed
 
Batlle M, Ribera JM, Oriol A, Plensa E, Millá F, Feliu E.  Successful response to rituximab in a patient with pure red cell aplasia complicating chronic lymphocytic leukaemia [Letter]. Br J Haematol. 2002; 118:1192-3. PubMed
 
Maciejewski JP, Sloand EM, Nunez O, Boss C, Young NS.  Recombinant humanized anti-IL-2 receptor antibody (daclizumab) produces responses in patients with moderate aplastic anemia. Blood. 2003; 102:3584-6. PubMed
 
Carswell CI, Plosker GL, Wagstaff AJ.  Daclizumab: a review of its use in the management of organ transplantation. BioDrugs. 2001; 15:745-73. PubMed
 
Krantz SB.  Diagnosis and treatment of pure red cell aplasia. Med Clin North Am. 1976; 60:945-58. PubMed
 
Means RT Jr, Krantz SB.  Inhibition of human erythroid colony-forming units by gamma interferon can be corrected by recombinant human erythropoietin. Blood. 1991; 78:2564-7. PubMed
 
Krantz SB, Moore WH, Zaentz SD.  Studies on red cell aplasia. V. Presence of erythroblast cytotoxicity in G-globulin fraction of plasma. J Clin Invest. 1973; 52:324-36. PubMed
 
Gershon SK, Luksenburg H, Coté TR, Braun MM.  Pure red-cell aplasia and recombinant erythropoietin [Letter]. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1584-6; author reply 1584-6. [PMID: 12015400]
 
Rossert J, Casadevall N, Eckardt KU.  Anti-erythropoietin antibodies and pure red cell aplasia. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004; 15:398-406. PubMed
 
Freund LG, Hippe E, Strandgaard S, Pelus LM, Erslev AJ.  Complete remission in pure red cell aplasia after plasmapheresis. Scand J Haematol. 1985; 35:315-8. PubMed
 
Mangan KF, Shadduck RK, Winkelstein A.  Plasmapheresis and antithymocyte globulin treatment of chronic refractory pure red cell aplasia: correlation of clinical results with in vitro erythroid culture studies [Abstract]. Clin Res. 1982; 30:323A.
 
Masuda M, Arai Y, Okamura T, Wada M, Mizoguchi H.  Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) with thymoma: a possible distinct clinical entity distinct from large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia [Letter]. Am J Hematol. 2000; 63:102. PubMed
 
Mangan KF, Volkin R, Winkelstein A.  Autoreactive erythroid progenitor-T suppressor cells in the pure red cell aplasia associated with thymoma and panhypogammaglobulinemia. Am J Hematol. 1986; 23:167-73. PubMed
 
DeSevilla E, Forrest JV, Zivnuska FR, Sagel SS.  Metastatic thymoma with myasthenia gravis and pure red cell aplasia. Cancer. 1975; 36:1154-7. PubMed
 
Hirst E, Robertson TI.  The syndrome of thymoma and erythroblastopenic anemia. A review of 56 cases including 3 case reports. Medicine (Baltimore). 1967; 46:225-64. PubMed
 

Letters

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

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Summary for Patients

Clinical Slide Sets

Terms of Use

The In the Clinic® slide sets are owned and copyrighted by the American College of Physicians (ACP). All text, graphics, trademarks, and other intellectual property incorporated into the slide sets remain the sole and exclusive property of the ACP. The slide sets may be used only by the person who downloads or purchases them and only for the purpose of presenting them during not-for-profit educational activities. Users may incorporate the entire slide set or selected individual slides into their own teaching presentations but may not alter the content of the slides in any way or remove the ACP copyright notice. Users may make print copies for use as hand-outs for the audience the user is personally addressing but may not otherwise reproduce or distribute the slides by any means or media, including but not limited to sending them as e-mail attachments, posting them on Internet or Intranet sites, publishing them in meeting proceedings, or making them available for sale or distribution in any unauthorized form, without the express written permission of the ACP. Unauthorized use of the In the Clinic slide sets will constitute copyright infringement.

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