There were 488 841 participants who enrolled in the IDF between 1980 and 2003 and fulfilled the inclusion criteria; the sample included 181 474 women and 307 367 men. Table 1 shows the rates of various autoimmune disorders present in the entire cohort at the time of enrollment. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in men and women was not significantly different, but all other documented autoimmune disorders were present at significantly higher rates in women than in men. Compared with asthmatic women, nonasthmatic women had a significantly higher prevalence of type 1 diabetes (risk ratio, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.02 to 2.61]; P = 0.008), vasculitis (risk ratio, 1.58 [CI, 1.01 to 2.48]; P = 0.004), and rheumatoid arthritis (risk ratio, 2.40 [CI, 1.19 to 4.85]; P = 0.011). Nonasthmatic men also had a significantly higher prevalence of these 3 conditions than their asthmatic counterparts; the risk ratios were 1.83 (CI, 1.33 to 2.53; P < 0.001) for type 1 diabetes, 1.90 (CI, 1.02 to 3.87; P = 0.037) for vasculitis, and 1.67 (CI, 1.01 to 3.05; P = 0.042) for rheumatoid arthritis. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura and inflammatory bowel disease were found to be significantly more prevalent in nonasthmatic women only; no significant differences were found between asthmatic and nonasthmatic men. The prevalence of the antiphospholipid syndrome was similar between asthmatic and nonasthmatic men and women. Overall, the prevalence of any autoimmune disease was 1.62-fold higher in nonasthmatic women and 1.23-fold higher in nonasthmatic men than in their asthmatic counterparts. The rates of nephrolithiasis and cholelithiasis were not significantly different between asthmatic and nonasthmatic persons of both sexes.