Among the 4663 participants in our study, 1004 (22%) had chronic kidney disease and 3659 (78%) had no chronic kidney disease. Among participants with chronic kidney disease, the mean cystatin C concentration, creatinine concentration, and estimated GFR were 1.5 mg/L, 123.8 µmol/L (1.4 mg/dL), and 50 mL/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Among those without chronic kidney disease, the mean values were 1.0 mg/L, 79.6 µmol/L (0.9 mg/dL), and 83 mL/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. The Pearson correlations (r) of cystatin C with creatinine and with estimated GFR were 0.81 and −0.75 (both P < 0.001), respectively, among persons with chronic kidney disease and 0.38 and −0.46 (both P < 0.001), respectively, among persons without chronic kidney disease. These correlations with cystatin C were significantly stronger among the subgroup with chronic kidney disease than among the subgroup without chronic kidney disease (P < 0.001 for both correlations by the Fisher exact test). Figure 1 shows the distributions of creatinine and cystatin C concentrations among CHS participants without chronic kidney disease.