The Linxian trial examined the incidence of and mortality from all cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach (cardia and noncardia) cancer, esophageal and gastric cardia cancer, and other cancer (18). After 5.25 years of follow-up, supplementation had no significant effect on these end points (Appendix Table 1). The only exceptions were reductions in the incidence of gastric cancer (relative risk, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71–1.00]), mortality rate from cancer (relative risk, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.75–1.00]), and mortality rate from stomach cancer (relative risk, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.64–0.99]) in the groups receiving β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and selenium, with or without other nutrients, compared with the groups receiving vitamin and mineral combinations with no β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and selenium (Figure 1) (18), and a lower mortality rate from noncardia stomach cancer in those receiving retinol and zinc (relative risk, 0.59 [95% CI, 0.37–0.93]) (18). The reduction in the mortality rate from cancer was greater in women than in men (relative risk, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.64–0.98] and 0.93 [95% CI, 0.77–1.12], respectively) and in persons younger than 55 years of age than in those 55 years of age or older (relative risk, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.55–0.92] and 0.94 [95% CI, 0.80–1.11], respectively) (19). In the substudy in which participants underwent endoscopic examination at the end of the trial, supplementation with β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and selenium had no significant effect on dysplasia or early cancer of the esophagus or stomach, although the odds ratios were generally in the protective direction (20) (Appendix Table 1).