Although inexperienced interns may not know when to call for help, inexperienced supervisors may not recognize when such calls have been made. The senior resident, Dr. R., probably had enough experience that, had she been at the bedside, she would have appreciated the gravity of Mrs. L.'s deterioration and initiated earlier, more aggressive evaluation and treatment. However, she may not have had enough experience to sense—when Dr. B. paged her to tell her about Mrs. L.'s condition and her actions—how concerned the intern was about the patient's status. On the basis of our discussions with Drs. B. and R., it seems likely that if Dr. R. had explicitly asked, “Would you like me to see the patient?”, Dr. B. would have said, “Yes.” Here we see the effects of the loss of supervisor role models. One wonders how many busy attending physicians had ever paused in the middle of their work to ask Dr. R. the same question earlier in her training. Or, even more important, how many attending physicians ever recognized that Dr. R. seemed concerned about a patient and simply suggested, “Let's go see the patient together”? Without past experiences of effective supervision, Dr. R. would have little opportunity to develop the ability to sense when trainees under her supervision need help.