Acute coronary syndromes occur when there are blockages in blood flow to heart muscle. If the blockage lasts long enough, an area of heart muscle dies, a condition commonly known as a heart attack. Guidelines recommend treatments for acute coronary syndromes to keep heart muscle alive and prevent bad outcomes, such as heart attack or death. In the first 24 hours following heart attack, recommended treatments include medications to control heart rate and decrease blockages, cardiac catheterization to determine the extent of blockages, and procedures to open up or bypass blocked blood vessels in certain situations. Treatments recommended at the time of hospital discharge include some of the same medications recommended in the first 24 hours, medications and dietary advice to control cholesterol levels, counseling to stop smoking, and cardiac rehabilitation programs. Unfortunately, not all patients receive all recommended treatments.