Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Sewankambo N, Serwadda D, Li C, Wabwire-Mangen F.
et al. Viral load and heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Rakai Project Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:921.-9 PubMed
Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, Loveless MO, Fuhrer J, Satten GA.
et al. Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:853.-60 PubMed
Barroso PF, Schechter M, Gupta P, Melo MF, Vieira M, Murta FC.
et al. Effect of antiretroviral therapy on HIV shedding in semen. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:280.-4 PubMed
Marks G, Crepaz N, Senterfitt JW, Janssen RS.
Meta-analysis of high-risk sexual behavior in persons aware and unaware they are infected with HIV in the United States: implications for HIV prevention programs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39:446.-53 PubMed
Crepaz N, Lyles CM, Wolitski RJ, Passin WF, Rama SM, Herbst JH.
et al. Do prevention interventions reduce HIV risk behaviours among people living with HIV? A meta-analytic review of controlled trials [Editorial]. AIDS. 2006;20:143.-57 PubMed
Chou R, Huffman LH, Fu R, Smits AK, Korthuis PT.
Screening for HIV: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:55.-73 PubMed
Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA, Janssen RS, Taylor AW, Lyss SB, et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55:1-17; quiz CE1-4. [PMID: 16988643]
Mapping the roots of HIV/AIDS complacency: implications for program and policy development. AIDS Educ Prev. 2004;16:426.-39 PubMed
Stolte G, Dukers NH, de Wit JB, Fennema H, Coutinho RA.
A summary report from Amsterdam: increase in sexually transmitted diseases and risky sexual behaviour among homosexual men in relation to the introduction of new anti-HIV drugs. Euro Surveill. 2002;7:19.-22 PubMed
Scheer S, Chu PL, Klausner JD, Katz MH, Schwarcz SK.
Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on diagnoses of sexually transmitted diseases in people with AIDS. Lancet. 2001;357:432.-5 PubMed
Kelly JA, Hoffman RG, Rompa D, Gray M.
Protease inhibitor combination therapies and perceptions of gay men regarding AIDS severity and the need to maintain safer sex. AIDS. 1998;12:F91.-5 PubMed
Impact of improved treatments on perceptions about HIV and safer sex among inner-city HIV-infected men and women. J Community Health. 2002;27:63.-73 PubMed
McGowan JP, Shah SS, Ganea CE, Blum S, Ernst JA, Irwin KL.
et al. Risk behavior for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among HIV-seropositive individuals in an urban setting. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:122.-7 PubMed
Otten MW Jr, Zaidi AA, Wroten JE, Witte JJ, Peterman TA.
Changes in sexually transmitted disease rates after HIV testing and posttest counseling, Miami, 1988 to 1989. Am J Public Health. 1993;83:529.-33 PubMed
Oster G, Epstein AM.
Cost-effectiveness of antihyperlipemic therapy in the prevention of coronary heart disease. The case of cholestyramine. JAMA. 1987;258:2381.-7 PubMed
Eddy DM, Hasselblad V, McGivney W, Hendee W.
The value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years. JAMA. 1988;259:1512.-9 PubMed
Frame PS, Frame JS.
Determinants of cancer screening frequency: the example of screening for cervical cancer. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1998;11:87.-95 PubMed
Prostate carcinoma incidence and patient mortality: the effects of screening and early detection. Cancer. 1997;80:1857.-63 PubMed
Freedberg KA, Losina E, Weinstein MC, Paltiel AD, Cohen CJ, Seage GR.
et al. The cost effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:824.-31 PubMed
Mylonakis E, Paliou M, Lally M, Flanigan TP, Rich JD.
Laboratory testing for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus: established and novel approaches. Am J Med. 2000;109:568.-76 PubMed
Approval of a new rapid test for HIV antibody. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:1051-2. [PMID: 12487529] Approval of a new rapid test for HIV antibody. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51:1051.-2 PubMed
Ekwueme DU, Pinkerton SD, Holtgrave DR, Branson BM.
Cost comparison of three HIV counseling and testing technologies. Am J Prev Med. 2003;25:112.-21 PubMed
Gold MR, Siegel JE, Russell LB, Weinstein MC, eds. Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. New York: Oxford Univ Pr; 1996.Gold MR, Siegel JE, Russell LB, Weinstein MC Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. New York Oxford Univ Pr1996.
Weinstein MC, Goldie SJ, Losina E, Cohen CJ, Baxter JD, Zhang H.
et al. Use of genotypic resistance testing to guide HIV therapy: clinical impact and cost-effectiveness. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134:440.-50 PubMed
Schackman BR, Freedberg KA, Weinstein MC, Sax PE, Losina E, Zhang H.
et al. Cost-effectiveness implications of the timing of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2478.-86 PubMed
Kimmel AD, Goldie SJ, Walensky RP, Losina E, Weinstein MC, Paltiel AD.
et al. Optimal frequency of CD4 cell count and HIV RNA monitoring prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. Antivir Ther. 2005;10:41.-52 PubMed
Mellors JW, Muñoz A, Giorgi JV, Margolick JB, Tassoni CJ, Gupta P.
et al. Plasma viral load and CD4+ lymphocytes as prognostic markers of HIV-1 infection. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:946.-54 PubMed
Paltiel AD, Weinstein MC, Kimmel AD, Seage GR 3rd, Losina E, Zhang H.
et al. Expanded screening for HIV in the United States—an analysis of cost-effectiveness. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:586.-95 PubMed
Walensky RP, Weinstein MC, Kimmel AD, Seage GR 3rd, Losina E, Sax PE.
et al. Routine human immunodeficiency virus testing: an economic evaluation of current guidelines. Am J Med. 2005;118:292.-300 PubMed
Walensky RP, Weinstein MC, Smith HE, Freedberg KA, Paltiel AD.
Optimal allocation of testing dollars: the example of HIV counseling, testing, and referral. Med Decis Making. 2005;25:321.-9 PubMed
Gallant JE, Staszewski S, Pozniak AL, DeJesus E, Suleiman JM, Miller MD.
et al. Efficacy and safety of tenofovir DF vs stavudine in combination therapy in antiretroviral-naive patients: a 3-year randomized trial. JAMA. 2004;292:191.-201 PubMed
Cohen C, Nieto-Cisneros L, Zala C, Fessel WJ, Gonzalez-Garcia J, Gladysz A.
et al. Comparison of atazanavir with lopinavir/ritonavir in patients with prior protease inhibitor failure: a randomized multinational trial. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21:1683.-92 PubMed
Johnson M, Grinsztejn B, Rodriguez C, Coco J, DeJesus E, Lazzarin A.
et al. Atazanavir plus ritonavir or saquinavir, and lopinavir/ritonavir in patients experiencing multiple virological failures. AIDS. 2005;19:685.-94 PubMed
Nelson M, Arastéh K, Clotet B, Cooper DA, Henry K, Katlama C.
et al. Durable efficacy of enfuvirtide over 48 weeks in heavily treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in the T-20 versus optimized background regimen only 1 and 2 clinical trials. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;40:404.-12 PubMed
Farnham PG, Gorsky RD, Holtgrave DR, Jones WK, Guinan ME. Counseling and testing for HIV prevention: costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of more rapid screening tests. Public Health Rep. 1996;111:44-53; discussion 54. [PMID: 8610190]
Dybul M, Bolan R, Condoluci D, Cox-Iyamu R, Redfield R, Hallahan CW.
et al. Evaluation of initial CD4+ T cell counts in individuals with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection, by sex and race, in urban settings. J Infect Dis. 2002;185:1818.-21 PubMed
Revised guidelines for HIV counseling, testing, and referral. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2001;50:1-57; quiz CE1-19a1-CE6-19a1. [PMID: 11718472]
Seage GR 3rd, Holte SE, Metzger D, Koblin BA, Gross M, Celum C.
et al. Are US populations appropriate for trials of human immunodeficiency virus vaccine? The HIVNET Vaccine Preparedness Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153:619.-27 PubMed
Webster RD, Darrow WW, Paul JP, Roark RA, Woods WJ, Stempel RR.
HIV infection and associated risks among young men who have sex with men in a Florida resort community. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;33:223.-31 PubMed
Glynn M, Rhodes P. Estimated HIV prevalence in the United States at the end of 2003 [Abstract]. Presented at the 2005 National HIV Prevention Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, 12-15 June 2005: abstract no. T1-B1101.
Gray RH, Li X, Wawer MJ, Gange SJ, Serwadda D, Sewankambo NK.
et al. Stochastic simulation of the impact of antiretroviral therapy and HIV vaccines on HIV transmission; Rakai, Uganda. AIDS. 2003;17:1941.-51 PubMed
Velasco-Hernandez JX, Gershengorn HB, Blower SM.
Could widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy eradicate HIV epidemics? Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2:487.-93 PubMed
Jacobson LP, Ostrow D, Hylton J, Gore ME, Weisberg M, Silvestre A. Unsafe sexual behavior among homosexual men increases in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy [Abstract]. Int Conf AIDS. 2004;15:MoOrD1090.
Crepaz N, Hart TA, Marks G.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy and sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review. JAMA. 2004;292:224.-36 PubMed
Pérez-Peña R. In H.I.V. tests, cities face tantalizing choice of advances. The New York Times. 6 June 6:B1;2005.
Costello D. Rapid HIV test slow to catch on with doctors. Los Angeles Times. 21 February 2005:F1.
Anderson RM, May RM. Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. New York Oxford Science Publications1992.
Fraser C, Hollingsworth T, Chapman R, Anderson R. Quantifying the impact of primary infection on HIV transmission and control [Abstract]. Presented at the 13th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Denver, Colorado, 5-8 February 2006: Abstract no. 162.
Holtgrave DR, Pinkerton SD.
Updates of cost of illness and quality of life estimates for use in economic evaluations of HIV prevention programs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997;16:54.-62 PubMed
Schackman BR, Gebo KA, Walensky RP, Losina E, Muccio T, Sax PE.
et al. The lifetime cost of HIV care in the United States in the current treatment era. Med Care. 2006;44:990.-7 PubMed
Schackman BR, Goldie SJ, Freedberg KA, Losina E, Brazier J, Weinstein MC.
Comparison of health state utilities using community and patient preference weights derived from a survey of patients with HIV/AIDS. Med Decis Making. 2002;22:27.-38 PubMed
United States life tables, 2002. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2004;53:1.-38 PubMed
Brazier JE, Roberts J.
The estimation of a preference-based measure of health from the SF-12. Med Care. 2004;42:851.-9 PubMed
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Accessed athttp://meps.ahrq.gov
on 4 August 2005.
Meltzer D, Egleston B, Stoffel D, Dasbach E.
Effect of future costs on cost-effectiveness of medical interventions among young adults: the example of intensive therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Med Care. 2000;38:679.-85 PubMed
Samet JH, Freedberg KA, Savetsky JB, Sullivan LM, Stein MD.
Understanding delay to medical care for HIV infection: the long-term non-presenter. AIDS. 2001;15:77.-85 PubMed
Screening for HIV: recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:32-7. [PMID: 15998753] Screening for HIV: recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:32.-7 PubMed
Sweat M, Gregorich S, Sangiwa G, Furlonge C, Balmer D, Kamenga C.
et al. Cost-effectiveness of voluntary HIV-1 counselling and testing in reducing sexual transmission of HIV-1 in Kenya and Tanzania. Lancet. 2000;356:113.-21 PubMed
Varghese B, Peterman TA, Holtgrave DR.
Cost-effectiveness of counseling and testing and partner notification: a decision analysis. AIDS. 1999;13:1745.-51 PubMed
Sanders GD, Bayoumi AM, Sundaram V, Bilir SP, Neukermans CP, Rydzak CE.
et al. Cost-effectiveness of screening for HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:570.-85 PubMed
Graham S, Holte S, Richardson B, Panteleeff D, Jaoko W, Ndinya-Achola J, et al. Initiation of ART leads to a rapid decline in cervical and vaginal HIV-1 RNA [Abstract]. Presented at the 13th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Denver, Colorado, 5-8 February 2006: Abstract no. 130.
Dumon J, Yeh R, Patterson K, Corbett A, Jung BH, Rezk N, et al. First dose and steady-state genital track pharmacokinetics of ten antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected women: implications for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis [Abstract]. Presented at the 13th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Denver, Colorado, 5-8 February 2006: Abstract no. 129.
Viani R, Peralta L, Aldrovandi G, Kapogiannis B, Mitchell R, Spector S, et al. Prevalence of primary HIV drug resistance among recently infected adolescents: a multicenter adolescent trials network study: ATN029. Presented at the 13th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Denver, Colorado, 5-8 February 2006: Abstract no. 21.
McCormick A. Antimicrobial use and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. Modeling the effects of antiretroviral therapy on the HIV basic reproductive number among men who have sex with men. Harvard School of Public Health2005.
Pilcher CD, Fiscus SA, Nguyen TQ, Foust E, Wolf L, Williams D.
et al. Detection of acute infections during HIV testing in North Carolina. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1873.-83 PubMed
Colfax GN, Buchbinder SP, Cornelisse PG, Vittinghoff E, Mayer K, Celum C.
Sexual risk behaviors and implications for secondary HIV transmission during and after HIV seroconversion. AIDS. 2002;16:1529.-35 PubMed
Wawer MJ, Gray RH, Sewankambo NK, Serwadda D, Li X, Laeyendecker O.
et al. Rates of HIV-1 transmission per coital act, by stage of HIV-1 infection, in Rakai, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:1403.-9 PubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Special Surveillance Report: HIV Testing Survey, 2001. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004.
Freedberg KA, Samet JH.
Think HIV: why physicians should lower their threshold for HIV testing. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:1994.-2000 PubMed