Using intention-to-treat analysis, the investigators reported 7-day point-prevalence rates of smoking abstinence at 3 months as 15.5% in the concurrent treatment group and 4.4% in the delayed (untreated) group (P < 0.001). At 6 months, smoking abstinence rates were 10.5% in the concurrent treatment group and 5.2% in the delayed (untreated) group (P = 0.02). At 9 and 12 months (when both the delayed group and the concurrent group received smoking cessation treatment), the treatment groups did not differ significantly. The rate of prolonged smoking abstinence at 18 months for both groups was similar: 8.8% and 8.9%. Six-month alcohol abstinence at 6, 12, and 18 months was lower in the concurrent treatment group (41%, 33%, and 41%, respectively) than in the delayed treatment group (56%, 42%, and 48%; P = 0.004, P = 0.11, and P = 0.01, respectively) (20).