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Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women

Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, MD, MS; Debbie A. Postlethwaite, RNP, MPH; Yun-Yi Hung, PhD; and Mary Anne Armstrong, MA
[+] Article and Author Information

From the Center for Research on Health Care, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Women's Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.


Acknowledgments: The authors thank Ruth Shaber, MD, and Fiona Sinclair, PA-C, MHS, for their assistance in coordinating this study.

Grant Support: By unrestricted funding from Duramed Pharmaceuticals and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development grant K23 HD051585-01.

Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed.

Requests for Single Reprints: Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, MD, MS, Center for Research on Health Care, 230 McKee Place, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213; e-mail, schwarzeb@upmc.edu.

Current Author Addresses: Dr. Schwarz: Center for Research on Health Care, 230 McKee Place, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.

Ms. Postlethwaite: Kaiser Permanente Women's Health Research Institute, 1950 Franklin Street, 19th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612.

Dr. Hung and Ms. Armstrong: Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Northern California, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612.

Author Contributions: Conception and design: E.B. Schwarz, D.A. Postlethwaite.

Analysis and interpretation of the data: E.B. Schwarz, D.A. Postlethwaite, Y.Y. Hung, M.A. Armstrong.

Drafting of the article: E.B. Schwarz.

Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: D.A. Postlethwaite, Y.Y. Hung, M.A. Armstrong.

Final approval of the article: E.B. Schwarz, D.A. Postlethwaite, Y.Y. Hung, M.A. Armstrong.

Provision of study materials or patients: D.A. Postlethwaite.

Statistical expertise: E.B. Schwarz, Y.Y. Hung, M.A. Armstrong.

Obtaining of funding: E.B. Schwarz, D.A. Postlethwaite.

Administrative, technical, or logistic support: Debbie A. Postlethwaite.

Collection and assembly of data: D.A. Postlethwaite, Y.Y. Hung.


Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(6):370-376. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-6-200709180-00006
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We conducted a retrospective cohort study using health care databases of women who were between 15 and 44 years of age and had continuous membership and pharmacy benefits with Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California, during 2001. Kaiser Permanente Northern California, the largest health maintenance organization in northern California, has many facilities in 12 locations and serves approximately one third of the region's population. An estimated 96% of Kaiser Permanente members have pharmacy benefits that give them a financial incentive to fill prescriptions at a Kaiser Permanente pharmacy (8). This study was approved by the institutional review boards of the Kaiser Foundation Research Institute and the University of Pittsburgh.

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Summary for Patients

Frequency of Birth Control Services with Prescriptions for Unsafe Drugs During Pregnancy

The summary below is from the full report titled “Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women.” It is in the 18 September 2007 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine (volume 147, pages 370-376). The authors are E.B. Schwarz, D.A. Postlethwaite, Y.Y. Hung, and M.A. Armstrong.

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