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Non-HACEK Gram-Negative Bacillus Endocarditis

Susan Morpeth, MBChB; David Murdoch, MD; Christopher H. Cabell, MD, MHS; Adolf W. Karchmer, MD; Paul Pappas, MS; Donald Levine, MD; Francisco Nacinovich, MD; Pierre Tattevin, MD; Núria Fernández-Hidalgo, MD; Stuart Dickerman, MD; Emilio Bouza, MD, PhD; Ana del Río, MD; Tatjana Lejko-Zupanc, MD, PhD; Auristela de Oliveira Ramos, MD; Diana Iarussi, MD; John Klein, MD; Catherine Chirouze, MD; Roger Bedimo, MD, MS; G. Ralph Corey, MD; Vance G. Fowler Jr., MD, MHS, the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS) Investigators*
[+] Article and Author Information

For a list of the ICE-PCS investigators, see the Appendix.


From Duke University Medical Center and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina; University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Wayne State University Health Center, Detroit, Michigan; Instituto Cardiovascular de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes, France; Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; New York University School of Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; Hospital Clínic i Provincial Clinic—Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Medical Center Ljublijana, Ljublijana, Slovenia; Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiología, São Paulo, Brazil; II Università di Napoli, Naples, Italy; St. Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom; University Medical Center of Besançon, Besançon, France; and Veterans Health Affairs North Texas, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.


Grant Support: From the National Institutes of Health (Dr. Fowler) (grant no. R01-AI068804) and the Hubert-Yeargan Center for Global Health (Dr. Morpeth).

Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest:Consultancies: G.R. Corey (Theravance, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Cerexa, Astellas Pharma, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson), V.G. Fowler (Biosynexus, Astellas Pharma, Inhibitex, Nabi, Merck & Co., Theravance, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson). Honoraria: G.R. Corey (Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Astellas Pharma), V.G. Fowler (Cubist Pharmaceuticals). Grants received: V.G. Fowler (Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Merck & Co., Nabi, National Institutes of Health, Theravance). Grants pending: V.G. Fowler (Cerexa, National Institutes of Health).

Requests for Single Reprints: Vance G. Fowler Jr., MD, MHS, Box 3281, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710; e-mail, vance.fowler@duke.edu.

Current Author Addresses: Drs. Morpeth and Fowler: Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.

Dr. Murdoch: Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch, PO Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Drs. Cabell and Corey: Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.

Dr. Karchmer: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215.

Mr. Pappas: Outcomes Research and Assessment Group, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.

Dr. Levine: University Health Center, Wayne State University, 3663 Woodward Avenue, #200, Detroit, MI 48201.

Dr. Nacinovich: Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, Instituto Cardiovascular de Buenos Aires, Bonpland 2265 - PB B, Buenos Aires 1425, Argentina.

Dr. Tattevin: Maladies Infectieuses et Réanimation Médicale, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes 35033, France.

Dr. Fernández-Hidalgo: Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Servei de Malalties Infeccioses, AVDP, Vall d'Hebron, 119-129 Barcelona 08035, Spain.

Dr. Dickerman: School of Medicine, New York University Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016.

Dr. Bouza: Sevicio de Microbiología Clínica y Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Dr. Esquerdo 46, Madrid 28007, Spain.

Dr. del Río: Infectious Diseases Service, Hosp. Clinic—IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Villarroel, 170 Barcelona 08036, Spain.

Dr. Lejko-Zupanc: Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical Center Ljublijana, Japljeva 2, Ljublijana 1000, Slovenia.

Dr. de Oliveira Ramos: Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiología, Av. Jurema 534/101, São Paulo 04079-001, Brazil.

Dr. Iarussi: II Università di Napoli, Naples 80135, Italy.

Dr. Klein: Department of Infection, 5th Floor North Wing, St. Thomas' Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom.

Dr. Chirouze: University Medical Center of Besançon, Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Besançon F-25030, France.

Dr. Bedimo: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390.

Author Contributions: Conception and design: S. Morpeth, D. Murdoch, C.H. Cabell, A.W. Karchmer, P. Pappas, P. Tattevin, E. Bouza, G.R. Corey, V.G. Fowler.

Analysis and interpretation of the data: S. Morpeth, D. Murdoch, C.H. Cabell, A.W. Karchmer, P. Pappas, D. Levine, P. Tattevin, S. Dickerman, J. Klein, G.R. Corey, V.G. Fowler.

Drafting of the article: S. Morpeth, C.H. Cabell, P. Tattevin, S. Dickerman, G.R. Corey, V.G. Fowler.

Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: S. Morpeth, D. Murdoch, C.H. Cabell, A.W. Karchmer, P. Pappas, D. Levine, F. Nacinovich, P. Tattevin, N. Fernández-Hidalgo, S. Dickerman, E. Bouza, A. del Río, T. Lejko-Zupanc, A.de Oliveira Ramos, J. Klein, R. Bedimo, G.R. Corey, V.G. Fowler.

Final approval of the article: S. Morpeth, D. Murdoch, C.H. Cabell, A.W. Karchmer, P. Pappas, F. Nacinovich, P. Tattevin, N. Fernández-Hidalgo, S. Dickerman, E. Bouza, T. Lejko-Zupanc, J. Klein, C. Chirouze, V.G. Fowler.

Provision of study materials or patients: D. Murdoch, D. Levine, F. Nacinovich, P. Tattevin, N. Fernández-Hidalgo, E. Bouza, A. del Río, T. Lejko-Zupanc, A.de Oliveira Ramos, D. Iarussi, J. Klein, V.G. Fowler.

Statistical expertise: P. Pappas.

Obtaining of funding: C.H. Cabell, V.G. Fowler.

Administrative, technical, or logistic support: V.G. Fowler.

Collection and assembly of data: S. Morpeth, D. Murdoch, E. Bouza, T. Lejko-Zupanc, R. Bedimo, V.G. Fowler.


Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(12):829-835. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-12-200712180-00002
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Of the 2761 patients with definite endocarditis, 49 (1.8%) had endocarditis due to non-HACEK gram-negative bacilli. Twenty-six of these patients (53%) were enrolled from Europe; 11 (22%) from North America; and the remainder from South America, New Zealand, Australia, the Middle East, and Asia. Patient enrollment was constant throughout the study period.

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Grahic Jump Location
Figure.
Routes of acquisition among patients with definite endocarditis due to non-HACEK gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, and other pathogens.

HACEK = Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, or Kingella species.

Grahic Jump Location

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