After we adjusted for differences in covariates, both inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists were associated with reduced odds of death (OR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.78 to 0.83] for inhaled corticosteroids and 0.92 [CI, 0.88 to 0.96] for long-acting β-agonists), whereas ipratropium was associated with an increased risk (OR, 1.11 [CI, 1.08 to 1.15]). For cause-specific mortality, theophylline exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase in respiratory deaths compared with the unexposed group (OR, 1.71 [CI, 1.46 to 2.00]) (Table 3). Although point estimates indicated a more than 10% increase in the odds of respiratory death associated with long-acting β-agonists (OR, 1.12 [CI, 0.97 to 1.30]) and a more than 10% decrease with inhaled corticosteroids (OR, 0.88 [CI, 0.79 to 1.00]), neither was statistically significant. With respect to cardiovascular death, ipratropium exposure was associated with a 34% increase in the odds of cardiovascular death (OR, 1.34 [CI, 1.22 to 1.47]), whereas inhaled corticosteroid exposure was associated with a 20% decrease in the odds of a cardiovascular death (OR, 0.80 [CI, 0.72 to 0.88]). Long-acting β-agonists (OR, 0.97 [CI, 0.84 to 1.11]) and theophylline (OR, 1.16 [CI, 0.99 to 1.37]) were not associated with statistically significant risks in cardiovascular deaths.