Background: HIV-1 genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility testing (GPT) optimizes antiretroviral selection, but its effect on survival is unknown.
Objective: To evaluate the association between GPT and survival.
Design: Cohort study.
Setting: 10 U.S. HIV clinics.
Patients: 2699 HIV-infected patients eligible for GPT (plasma HIV RNA level >1000 copies/mL) seen from 1999 through 2005.
Measurements: Demographic characteristics, clinical factors, GPT use, all-cause mortality, and crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the association of GPT with survival.
Results: Patients were followed for a median of 3.3 years; 915 (34%) had GPT. Patients who had GPT had lower mortality rates than those who did not (2.0 vs. 2.7 deaths per 100 person-years). In standard Cox models, GPT was associated with improved survival (adjusted HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.51 to 0.94]; PÂ = 0.017) after controlling for demographic characteristics, CD4+ cell count, HIV RNA level, and intensity of clinical follow-up. In subgroup analyses, GPT was associated with improved survival for the 2107 highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)â€“experienced patients (2.2 vs. 3.2 deaths per 100 person-years for patients who had GPT vs. those who did not have GPT; adjusted HR, 0.60 [CI, 0.43 to 0.82]; PÂ = 0.002) and for the 921 triple antiretroviral classâ€“experienced patients (2.1 vs. 3.1 deaths per 100 person-years; adjusted HR, 0.61 [CI 0.40 to 0.93]; PÂ = 0.022). Marginal structural models supported associations between GPT and improved survival in the overall cohort (adjusted HR, 0.54; PÂ = 0.001) and in the HAART-experienced group (adjusted HR, 0.56; PÂ = 0.003).
Limitations: Use of GPT was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist.
Conclusion: Use of GPT was independently associated with improved survival among HAART-experienced patients.
Primary Funding Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.