Background: Fewer than 40% of persons with hypertension in the United States have adequate blood pressure (BP) control.
Objective: To compare 2 self-management interventions for improving BP control among hypertensive patients.
Design: A 2Â Ã—Â 2 randomized trial, stratified by enrollment site and patient health literacy status, with 2-year follow-up. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00123058)
Setting: 2 university-affiliated primary care clinics.
Patients: 636 hypertensive patients.
Intervention: A centralized, blinded, and stratified randomization algorithm was used to randomly assign eligible patients to receive usual care, a behavioral intervention (bimonthly tailored, nurse-administered telephone intervention targeting hypertension-related behaviors), home BP monitoring 3 times weekly, or the behavioral intervention plus home BP monitoring.
Measurements: The primary outcome was BP control at 6-month intervals over 24 months.
Results: 475 patients (75%) completed the 24-month BP follow-up. At 24 months, improvements in the proportion of patients with BP control relative to the usual care group were 4.3% (95% CI, âˆ’4.5% to 12.9%) in the behavioral intervention group, 7.6% (CI, âˆ’1.9% to 17.0%) in the home BP monitoring group, and 11.0% (CI, 1.9%, 19.8%) in the combined intervention group. Relative to usual care, the 24-month difference in systolic BP was 0.6 mm Hg (CI, âˆ’2.2 to 3.4 mm Hg) for the behavioral intervention group, âˆ’0.6 mm Hg (CI, âˆ’3.6 to 2.3 mm Hg) for the BP monitoring group, and âˆ’3.9 mm Hg (CI, âˆ’6.9 to âˆ’0.9 mm Hg) for the combined intervention group; patterns were similar for diastolic BP.
Limitation: Changes in medication use and diet were monitored only in intervention participants; 24-month outcome data were missing for 25% of participants, BP control was adequate at baseline in 73% of participants, and the study setting was an academic health center.
Conclusion: Combined home BP monitoring and tailored behavioral telephone intervention improved BP control, systolic BP, and diastolic BP at 24 months relative to usual care.
Primary Funding Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Pfizer Foundation Health Communication Initiative; and the American Heart Association.