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Original Research |

Cost-Effectiveness of Fracture Prevention in Men Who Receive Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

Kouta Ito, MD, MS; Elena B. Elkin, PhD; Monica Girotra, MD; and Michael J. Morris, MD
[+] Article, Author, and Disclosure Information

From Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

This study was presented at the 2009 American Society for Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 29 May–2 June 2009.

Potential Conflicts of Interest: None disclosed. Forms can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M09-1089.

Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol: Available from Dr. Ito (e-mail, itok1@mskcc.org). Statistical code and data set: Not available.

Requests for Single Reprints: Kouta Ito, MD, MS, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065; e-mail, itok1@mskcc.org.

Current Author Addresses: Dr. Ito: 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065.

Dr. Elkin: 307 East 63nd Street, New York, NY 10021.

Dr. Girotra: 415 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10065.

Dr. Morris: 353 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10065.

Author Contributions: Conception and design: K. Ito, M. Girotra.

Analysis and interpretation of the data: K. Ito, E.B. Elkin, M. Girotra, M.J. Morris.

Drafting of the article: K. Ito, E.B. Elkin, M.J. Morris.

Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: K. Ito, E.B. Elkin, M. Girotra.

Final approval of the article: K. Ito, E.B. Elkin, M. Girotra.

Provision of study materials or patients: K. Ito.

Statistical expertise: K. Ito.

Administrative, technical, or logistic support: K. Ito.

Collection and assembly of data: K. Ito.

Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(10):621-629. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-152-10-201005180-00002
Text Size: A A A

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) increases the risk for fractures in patients with prostate cancer.

Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of measuring bone mineral density (BMD) before initiating ADT followed by alendronate therapy in men with localized prostate cancer.

Design: Markov state-transition model simulating the progression of prostate cancer and the incidence of hip fracture.

Data Sources: Published literature.

Target Population: A hypothetical cohort of men aged 70 years with locally advanced or high-risk localized prostate cancer starting a 2-year course of ADT after radiation therapy.

Time Horizon: Lifetime.

Perspective: Societal.

Intervention: No BMD test or alendronate therapy, a BMD test followed by selective alendronate therapy for patients with osteoporosis, or universal alendronate therapy without a BMD test.

Outcome Measures: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), measured by cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.

Results of Base-Case Analysis: The ICERs for the strategy of a BMD test and selective alendronate therapy for patients with osteoporosis and universal alendronate therapy without a BMD test were $66 800 per QALY gained and $178 700 per QALY gained, respectively.

Results of Sensitivity Analyses: The ICER for universal alendronate therapy without a BMD test decreased to $100 000 per QALY gained, assuming older age, a history of fractures, lower mean BMD before ADT, or a lower cost of alendronate.

Limitations: No evidence shows that alendronate reduces actual fracture rates in patients with prostate cancer who receive ADT. The model predicted fracture rates by using data on the surrogate BMD end point.

Conclusion: In patients starting adjuvant ADT for locally advanced or high-risk localized prostate cancer, a BMD test followed by selective alendronate for those with osteoporosis is a cost-effective use of resources. Routine use of alendronate without a BMD test is justifiable in patients at higher risk for hip fractures.

Primary Funding Source: None.


Grahic Jump Location
Clinical strategies and progression model for prostate cancer.

ADT = androgen deprivation therapy; BMD = bone mineral density; PSA = prostate-specific antigen. Top. Algorithm showing a decision made at the onset of ADT for localized prostate cancer. Patients assigned to the alendronate group received alendronate for 5 years after proceeding to the prostate cancer progression model. Bottom. Prostate cancer progression model. Patients enter the model with localized disease. Each year, patients are at risk for the progression of prostate cancer, the occurrence of a hip fracture, or both. Throughout the patients' lifetime, all patients are at risk for death from causes unrelated to prostate cancer (not shown by the state or arrows). Squares represent the health states in the model. Arrows represent transitions between health states.

Grahic Jump Location




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