Background: Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer in men aged 15 to 34 years. Because treatment produces favorable outcomes even in advanced stages, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) concluded in 2004 that screening asymptomatic men for testicular cancer is unlikely to produce additional benefits over clinical detection.
Purpose: To search for new evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer to assist the USPSTF in updating its 2004 recommendation.
Data Sources: English-language articles indexed in PubMed and the Cochrane Library and published between 1 January 2001 and 11 November 2009.
Study Selection: Randomized, controlled trials; meta-analyses; systematic reviews; cohort studies; and caseâ€“control studies were selected to determine the benefits of screening for testicular cancer. Randomized, controlled trials; meta-analyses; systematic reviews; cohort studies; caseâ€“control studies; and case series of large, multisite databases were selected to determine the harms of screening. Each author independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full-text articles for possible inclusion.
Data Extraction: One author abstracted information on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer.
Data Synthesis: No studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were considered for inclusion at the full-text stage of review. These inconclusive studies addressed testicular microlithiasis, XIST gene testing, and testis-sparing surgery.
Limitation: The focused search strategy may have missed some smaller studies or studies published in languages other than English on the benefits or harms of testicular cancer screening.
Conclusion: No new evidence was found on the benefits or harms of screening for testicular cancer that would affect the USPSTF's previous recommendation against screening.
Primary Funding Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.