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In the Clinic |

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Michael R. Littner, MD
Ann Intern Med. 2011;154(7):ITC4-1. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-154-7-201104050-01004
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a treatable, preventable, and partially reversible disease characterized by progressive airflow obstruction documented by spirometry; it is associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases (14).

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Step therapy for patients with COPD from the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines.

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