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Rana S. Hinman, BPhysio(Hons), PhD; Tim V. Wrigley, BSc(Hons), MSc; Ben R. Metcalf, BSc(Hons); Penny K. Campbell, BAppSci(FoodSci&Nutr); Kade L. Paterson, BAppSci(Hons), BPod, PhD; David J. Hunter, MBBS, PhD; Jessica Kasza, BSc(Hons), PhD; Andrew Forbes, BSc(Hons), MS, PhD; and Kim L. Bennell, BAppSci(Physio), PhD

Clinical guidelines recommend advice on appropriate footwear as part of the management of knee osteoarthritis. Shoes that reduce harmful knee loads are commercially available, but their effects are uncertain. This randomized trial compared the efficacy of unloading shoes versus conventional walking shoes in improving symptoms among patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Topics: osteoarthritis, knee, pain, shoes, self-management, osteoarthritis
  
Louise B. Oestergaard, MD; Mia N. Christiansen, MD; Michelle D. Schmiegelow, MD, PhD; Robert L. Skov, MD; Paal S. Andersen, PhD; Andreas Petersen, PhD; Kristian Aasbjerg, MD; Thomas A. Gerds, PhD; Per K. Andersen, PhD, DMSci; and Christian Torp-Pedersen, MD, DMSci

Using a large nationwide database linked to a unique Staphylococcus aureus registry in Denmark, investigators studied whether having a first-degree relative with a prior admission for S aureus bacteremia is associated with an increased risk for the disease, independent of comorbid conditions or direct contamination.

Topics: staphylococcus aureus, bacteremia, first degree relative
  
Mohammed K. Ali, MBChB, MSc, MBA; Kavita Singh, MSc; Dimple Kondal, PhD; Raji Devarajan, MSc; Shivani A. Patel, MPH, PhD; Roopa Shivashankar, MD; Vamadevan S. Ajay, MPH, PhD; A.G. Unnikrishnan, MD, DM; V. Usha Menon, PhD; Premlata K. Varthakavi, MD, DNB; Vijay Viswanathan, MD, PhD; Mala Dharmalingam, MD, DM; Ganapati Bantwal, MD, DM; Rakesh Kumar Sahay, MD, DM; Muhammad Qamar Masood, MBBS; Rajesh Khadgawat, MD, DM; Ankush Desai, MD, DM; Bipin Sethi, MD, DM; Dorairaj Prabhakaran, MD, DM; K.M. Venkat Narayan, MD; Nikhil Tandon, MD, PhD, on behalf of the CARRS Trial Group

Despite improvements in risk factors and reductions in diabetes complications in the United States, large gaps exist in achievement of these goals globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This trial examined the effect of a multicomponent quality improvement strategy on improving cardiometabolic profiles in patients with diabetes seen in resource-constrained clinics in India and Pakistan

Topics: diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus, type 2, hemoglobin a, glycosylated, ldl cholesterol lipoproteins, ...
  
Kimberly A. Brownley, PhD; Nancy D. Berkman, PhD; Christine M. Peat, PhD; Kathleen N. Lohr, PhD; Katherine E. Cullen, BA; Carla M. Bann, PhD; and Cynthia M. Bulik, PhD

The best treatment options for binge-eating disorder are unclear. This systematic review summarizes trial evidence on the benefits and harms of various treatments for this disorder, including cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, and second-generation antidepressants.

Topics: binge eating disorder, cognitive-behavioral therapy, depressive disorders, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, binge eating, treatment ...
  
Lisa M. Schwartz, MD, MS; Steven Woloshin, MD, MS; Eugene Zheng, BA; Tony Tse, PhD; and Deborah A. Zarin, MD

Pharmaceutical companies and other trial sponsors must submit certain trial results to ClinicalTrials.gov, but their validity is unclear. This article evaluates the validity of results posted on ClinicalTrials.gov for 100 industryfunded randomized trials that were used to support new drug approvals in the United States.

Topics: drug approval, united states food and drug administration, adverse event, pharmaceutical company, ...
  
Bryan R. Luce, PhD; Jason T. Connor, PhD; Kristine R. Broglio, MS; C. Daniel Mullins, PhD; K. Jack Ishak, PhD; Elijah Saunders, MD; Barry R. Davis, MD, PhD, on behalf of the RE-ADAPT (REsearch in ADAptive methods for Pragmatic Trials) Investigators
Includes: Audio/Video

Bayesian adaptive clinical trial designs may be more efficient processes with lower sample sizes and shorter trial durations than traditional designs. This virtual execution of a large comparative effectiveness trial demonstrates the mechanics and feasibility of these designs.

Topics: allhat trial, comparative effectiveness research, diuretics
  

On 2 March 2016, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine released a congressionally mandated report on the state of research on ovarian cancer and its subtypes. This commentary summarizes findings and recommendations of key relevance to internists.

Topics: ovarian cancer
  

Hearing loss affects about 30 million persons in the United States. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine recently released a report on hearing health care for adults. This commentary summarizes findings and recommendations from that report that are particularly relevant for physicians.

Topics: engineering, hearing impairment
  

Hinman and colleagues report a randomized trial that compared shoes designed to unload the knee versus new conventional shoes. The editorialists discuss whether readily available, new, supportive lace-up shoes should be the current evidence-based recommendation for appropriate footwear while we wait for studies of knee biomechanics that might identify more effective interventions.

Topics: osteoarthritis, knee, shoes
  

The review by Brownley and colleagues summarizes the evidence on treatment for binge-eating disorder, including approaches developed since binge eating was first recognized as a clinical disorder. The editorialist notes that the article raises some fundamental questions: What are we to make of this “new” diagnosis? Why has it come to light now? How should we approach our patients?

Topics: binge eating disorder, binge eating
  
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Lauren F. Collins, MD; Carolina Geadas, MD; and Jerrold J. Ellner, MD
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Nobuari Takakura, PhD; Miho Takayama, PhD; and Hiroyoshi Yajima, PhD
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Ana Maria Lopez, MD, MPH; Angela Presson, PhD; Annie Budhathoki, MSTOM, LAc; and Shelley White, LCSW
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Carolyn Ee, MBBS; Charlie Xue, PhD; and Marie Pirotta, PhD
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William T. Phillips, MD; and Ralph Blumhardt, MD
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Diana L. Miglioretti, PhD; and Christoph I. Lee, MD, MSHS
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Alain Braillon, MD, PhD; Jérémy Fonseca Das Neves, MPsy; and Francoise Taiebi, MPsy
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Gerald Gartlehner, MD, MPH; Bradley N. Gaynes, MD, MPH; Catherine Forneris, PhD, ABPP; and Kathleen N. Lohr, PhD, MPhil, MA
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Yalçin Velibey, MD; Tolga S. Guvenc, MD; Murat Ugur, MD; Ozge Guzelburc, MD; and Mehmet Eren, MD
Topics: respiratory diaphragm, heart, syncope, defecation, compression
  
Brenda Butka, MD
Includes: Audio/Video
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Topics: evidence-based practice, colorectal cancer screening
  
Topics: aspirin, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, secondary prevention
  
Topics: antidepressive agents, omega-3 fatty acids, depressive disorders
  
Topics: omega-3 fatty acids, depressive disorders
  
Topics: menopause, cognitive-behavioral therapy, telephone, insomnia, follow-up
  
Topics: aortic valve stenosis, laparotomy, mortality, transcatheter aortic-valve implantation
  
Topics: systolic blood pressure, follow-up, disability
  
Topics: hypoglycemia, diabetes mellitus, type 2, glucose
  
Topics: pain, mortality, long-acting opioid analgesics
  
Topics: calibration, risk assessment, venous thromboembolism
  

The Consult Guys bring a new perspective to the art and science of medicine with lively discussion and analysis of real-world cases and situations.

Topics: atrial fibrillation, consultation
  
Topics: anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, engineering, ovarian cancer, binge eating, ...
  
Topics: hospitalists, transcatheter aortic-valve implantation, therapeutics, inpatient, platelet transfusion, antiplatelet agents, aortic valve ...
  
Topics: anticoagulation, hospitalists, inpatient, patient-centered care
  
Topics: osteoarthritis, knee, shoes
  
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