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Shoshana M. Rosenberg, ScD, MPH; Michaela S. Tracy, BA; Meghan E. Meyer, BS; Karen Sepucha, PhD; Shari Gelber, MS, MSW; Judi Hirshfield-Bartek, MS; Susan Troyan, MD; Monica Morrow, MD; Lidia Schapira, MD; Steven E. Come, MD; Eric P. Winer, MD; and Ann H. Partridge, MD, MPH

Young women with breast cancer are increasingly undergoing contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. In this survey of women aged 40 years or younger with unilateral breast cancer who had undergone bilateral mastectomy, common reasons for choosing contralateral prophylactic mastectomy were desires to avoid contralateral breast cancer and to improve survival. Women often overestimated the risk for contralateral breast cancer, but few believed that bilateral mastectomy improved survival.

Topics: women, breast cancer, cancer risk, mastectomy, contralateral prophylactic
  
Kevin F. Erickson, MD, MS; Glenn M. Chertow, MD, MPH; and Jeremy D. Goldhaber-Fiebert, PhD

A previous randomized trial showed that tolvaptan reduced kidney volume growth and loss of kidney function over 3 years in persons with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. This modeling study simulated outcomes and cost-effectiveness if tolvaptan's benefits persisted indefinitely. The researchers estimated that tolvaptan would slow progression to end-stage renal disease and reduce mortality rates, but its cost-effectiveness would not compare favorably with other common medical interventions.

Topics: kidney failure, chronic, cost effectiveness, polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant, tolvaptan
  
Robert M. Anthenelli, MD; Chad Morris, PhD; Tanya S. Ramey, MD, PhD; Sarah J. Dubrava, MS; Kostas Tsilkos, MD; Cristina Russ, MD; and Carla Yunis, MD, MPH

Varenicline increases quit rates in smokers, but its efficacy and safety in patients with psychiatric disorders are unclear. This trial randomly assigned smokers with stable treated current or past major depression and no recent cardiovascular disease to varenicline or placebo for 12 weeks. More varenicline recipients stopped smoking. It may be suitable for smoking cessation in some smokers with stable depression without exacerbating depression or anxiety.

Topics: smoking cessation, depressive disorders, major depressive disorder, varenicline, smoking, adverse event, follow-up ...
  
John M. Hollingsworth, MD, MS; Mary A.M. Rogers, PhD; Sarah L. Krein, PhD, RN; Andrew Hickner, MSI; Latoya Kuhn, MPH; Alex Cheng, MD; Robert Chang, MD; and Sanjay Saint, MD, MPH
Includes: CME | Audio/Video

Little is known about noninfectious complications resulting from urethral catheter use. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined studies describing such complications and pooled data to estimate their frequency. It found that noninfectious complications are common. The most frequent complications are minor (such as urine leakage), but serious complications (such as urethral strictures and gross hematuria) occur in a substantial proportion of catheter recipients.

Topics: indwelling catheter, catheter device, catheter complication, urethral catheter, hematuria, gross
  
Linda L. Humphrey, MD, MPH; Mark Deffebach, MD; Miranda Pappas, MA; Christina Baumann, MD, MPH; Kathryn Artis, MD, MPH; Jennifer Priest Mitchell, BA; Bernadette Zakher, MBBS; Rongwei Fu, PhD; and Christopher G. Slatore, MD, MS

Early-stage lung cancer is associated with lower mortality than late-stage disease; thus, early detection and treatment may be beneficial. This systematic review updates evidence on the effectiveness and harms of low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. It found that screening high-risk smokers who had at least a 30–pack-year history with low-dose computed tomography reduced lung cancer–related and all-cause mortality.

Topics: lung cancer, lung cancer screening, low-dose spiral ct, smoking, nlst
  
Marshall B. Kapp, JD, MPH
Includes: Audio/Video

In the U.S. debate about gun control, concern has centered on the safety of people, particularly children, who live in homes with guns. However, gun safety is also an issue in homes in which elderly people reside. This commentary presents an argument for why physicians should routinely ask older patients about their access to guns and address safety concerns when they exist.

Topics: physician-patient relations, firearms, safety, violence, elderly
  

Mental illness has figured prominently in the public dialogue about gun violence. This commentary expresses concern regarding the conflation of mental illness and gun violence—not only in the popular press but also in the academic literature. The authors believe that rhetoric too often portrays people with mental disorders as a greater part of the problem of gun violence than they actually are.

Topics: fear, firearms, mental disorders, violence, compassion
  
Mathias Lichterfeld, MD, PhD; and Eric S. Rosenberg, MD

Diagnosis of acute HIV-1 infection is infrequently considered and rarely made, but an estimated 50 000 persons in the United States are newly infected each year. This commentary discusses the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The authors believe that making the diagnosis, counseling patients about their diagnosis, and considering therapy to prevent virus transmission should serve as a “call to action” in managing patients with acute HIV-1.

Topics: hiv, hiv-1 infection
  
Pamela R. Portschy, MD; and Todd M. Tuttle, MD, MS

In this issue, Rosenberg and colleagues evaluated preferences, knowledge, decision making, and experiences of young women with breast cancer who chose contralateral prophylactic mastectomy and found that these women markedly overestimate their risk for contralateral breast cancer. The editorialists discuss the study and its findings and conclude that the discordance between patient perceptions and realistic expectations provides a teachable opportunity for physicians treating patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer.

Topics: women, breast cancer, cancer risk, mastectomy, contralateral prophylactic
  
Delphine S. Tuot, MDCM, MAS; and Neil R. Powe, MD, MPH, MBA

In this issue, Erickson and colleagues add to the discussion of health care value by studying the cost-effectiveness of tolvaptan, a new medication for persons with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. The editorialists discuss the study and its findings but conclude that regardless of tolvaptan's cost-effectiveness, questions about appropriate use remain.

Topics: kidney diseases, kidney failure, chronic, cost effectiveness, polycystic kidney, autosomal dominant, tolvaptan ...
  
Markus Donix, MD
Includes: Audio/Video

In a psychiatry department specializing in affective disorders, lectures and seminars on depression are nothing unusual. Over the years we had learned what to expect: stories of fragile recovery, reflected by the patient's ability to participate in such an event, and the inherent risk for symptom relapse.

Topics: #
  
Andrew D. Coates, MD
Includes: Audio/Video

Influenza rocked our community hospital for weeks this winter just as the first snowstorms came. On reflection, the experience left me feeling less like a doctor and more like a hapless worker bee in a buzzing but somehow misguided hive, fraught with unnecessary and avoidable endeavors.

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Andrew M.D. Wolf, MD
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Lazzaro M. Repetto, MD, PhD; Angela Marie Abbatecola, MD, PhD; and Giuseppe Paolisso, MD, PhD
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Corey D. Fogleman, MD
Includes: Audio/Video
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Topics: prone position, respiratory distress syndrome, adult, supine position, mortality
  
Topics: hemorrhage, tranexamic acid, wounds and injuries, risk of excessive or recurrent bleeding, ...
  
Topics: chlorhexidine, intensive care unit, mupirocin, nosocomial infection, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, microbial colonization ...
  
Topics: prednisone, adrenal corticosteroids, obstructive airways disease, chronic, exacerbation, acute, chronic obstructive airway ...
  
Topics: adrenal corticosteroids, frozen shoulder, intra-articular injections, pain, shoulder pain, triamcinolone, capsulitis, adhesive, ...
  
Topics: hypoglycemia, diabetes mellitus, type 1, insulin infusion systems, nocturnal hypoglycemia, sensor
  
Topics: hiv, tenofovir, intravenous drug user, hiv infection
  
Topics: selective estrogen receptor modulators, breast cancer
  
Topics: oral contraceptives, antifibrinolytic agents, levonorgestrel, endometrial disorder, abnormal uterine bleeding
  
Topics: cerebral hemisphere hemorrhage, hematoma, stich trial, conservative therapy, hematoma evacuation
  
Topics: aspirin, dalteparin, hip replacement arthroplasty, venous thromboembolism
  
Topics: hemorrhage, mortality, vitamin k antagonist, rivaroxaban
  

The Consult Guys bring a new perspective to the art and science of medicine with lively discussion and analysis of real-world cases and situations.

Topics: consultation, preoperative cardiac risk
  

The Consult Guys bring a new perspective to the art and science of medicine with lively discussion and analysis of real-world cases and situations.

Topics: consultation
  
Topics: women, breast cancer, cancer risk, mastectomy, contralateral prophylactic
  
Topics: smoking, smoking cessation, depressive disorders, varenicline
  
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