Stephen P. Fortmann, MD; Brittany U. Burda, MPH; Caitlyn A. Senger, MPH; Jennifer S. Lin, MD, MCR; Evelyn P. Whitlock, MD, MPH
Disclaimer: This review was conducted by the Kaiser Permanente Research Affiliates Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to AHRQ. AHRQ staff provided oversight for the project and assisted in the external review of the companion draft evidence synthesis.
Acknowledgment: The authors thank the following individuals for their contributions to this project: AHRQ staff; the USPSTF; JoAnn Manson, MD, DrPH, MPH, Thomas Trikalinos, MD, PhD, and Janelle Peralez-Gunn, MPH, for providing expert review of the report; and Kevin Lutz, MFA, Daphne A. Plaut, MLS, Carin M. Olson, MD, Elizabeth O’Connor, PhD, Tracy L. Beil, MS, at the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research.
Grant Support: By contract HHS-290-2007-10057-I from AHRQ.
Potential Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Fortmann: Grant: AHRQ. Ms. Burda: Grant: AHRQ. Dr. Lin: Grant: AHRQ. Dr. O'Connor: Grant: AHRQ. Ms. Senger: Grant: AHRQ. All other authors have no disclosures. Disclosures can also be viewed at www.acponline.org/icmje/authors/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M13-1702.
Requests for Single Reprints: Reprints are available from the AHRQ Web site (www.ahrq.gov).
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Fortmann, Ms. Burda, Ms. Senger, and Drs. Lin and Whitlock: Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, 3800 North Interstate Avenue, Portland, OR 97227.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: B.U. Burda, C.A. Senger, J.S. Lin, E.P. Whitlock.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: S.P. Fortmann, B.U. Burda, C.A. Senger, J.S. Lin, E.P. Whitlock.
Drafting of the article: S.P. Fortmann, B.U. Burda, C.A. Senger.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: S.P. Fortmann, B.U. Burda, C.A. Singer, J.S. Lin, E.P. Whitlock.
Final approval of the article: S.P. Fortmann, B.U. Burda, C.A. Senger, E.P. Whitlock.
Obtaining of funding: E.P. Whitlock.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: B.U. Burda, C.A. Senger.
Collection and assembly of data: S.P. Fortmann, B.U. Burda, C.A. Senger.
Vitamin and mineral supplements are commonly used to prevent chronic diseases.
To systematically review evidence for the benefit and harms of vitamin and mineral supplements in community-dwelling, nutrient-sufficient adults for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer.
MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from January 2005 to 29 January 2013, with manual searches of reference lists and gray literature.
Two investigators independently selected and reviewed fair- and good-quality trials for benefit and fair- and good-quality trials and observational studies for harms.
Dual quality assessments and data abstraction.
Two large trials (n = 27 658) reported lower cancer incidence in men taking a multivitamin for more than 10 years (pooled unadjusted relative risk, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99]). The study that included women showed no effect in that group. High-quality studies (k = 24; n = 324 653) of single and paired nutrients (such as vitamins A, C, or D; folic acid; selenium; or calcium) were scant and heterogeneous and showed no clear evidence of benefit or harm. Neither vitamin E nor β-carotene prevented CVD or cancer, and β-carotene increased lung cancer risk in smokers.
The analysis included only primary prevention studies in adults without known nutritional deficiencies. Studies were conducted in older individuals and included various supplements and doses under the set upper tolerable limits. Duration of most studies was less than 10 years.
Limited evidence supports any benefit from vitamin and mineral supplementation for the prevention of cancer or CVD. Two trials found a small, borderline-significant benefit from multivitamin supplements on cancer in men only and no effect on CVD.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Fortmann SP, Burda BU, Senger CA, Lin JS, Whitlock EP. Vitamin and Mineral Supplements in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: An Updated Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:824–834. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-159-12-201312170-00729
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2013;159(12):824-834.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Hematology/Oncology, Prevention/Screening.
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