Carrie D. Patnode, PhD, MPH; Elizabeth O’Connor, PhD; Maya Rowland, MPH; Brittany U. Burda, MPH; Leslie A. Perdue, MPH; Evelyn P. Whitlock, MD, MPH
Note: This review was conducted by the Kaiser Permanente Research Affiliates Evidence-based Practice Center under contract to AHRQ. AHRQ staff provided oversight for the project and assisted in the external review of the companion draft evidence synthesis.
Acknowledgment: The authors thank the AHRQ; members of the USPSTF; Sara Becker, PhD, Richard Brown, MD, MPH, Sharon Levy, MD, MPH, Matthew Young, PhD, and Stephen W. Banspach, PhD, for providing expert or federal partner review of the report; and Jillian T. Henderson, PhD, Kevin Lutz, MFA, Keshia Bigler, and the medical librarians at Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research.
Financial Support: By contract HHS-290-2007-10057-I from AHRQ.
Disclosures: Disclosures can be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M13-2064.
Requests for Single Reprints: Reprints are available from the AHRQ Web site (www.ahrq.gov).
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Patnode, O’Connor, and Whitlock; Ms. Rowland; Ms. Burda; and Ms. Perdue: Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, 3800 North Interstate Avenue, Portland, OR 97227.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: C.D. Patnode, E. O’Connor, E.P. Whitlock.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: C.D. Patnode, E. O’Connor, E.P. Whitlock.
Drafting of the article: C.D. Patnode.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: C.D. Patnode, E. O’Connor, E.P. Whitlock.
Final approval of the article: C.D. Patnode, E. O’Connor, M. Rowland, B.U. Burda, L.A. Perdue, E.P. Whitlock.
Provision of study materials or patients: C.D. Patnode.
Statistical expertise: C.D. Patnode, E. O’Connor.
Obtaining of funding: E.P. Whitlock.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: M. Rowland, B.U. Burda, L.A. Perdue, E.P. Whitlock.
Collection and assembly of data: C.D. Patnode, E. O’Connor, M. Rowland, B.U. Burda, L.A. Perdue.
Drug use among youths is associated with negative health and social consequences. Even infrequent use increases the risk for serious adverse events by increasing risk-taking behaviors in intoxicated or impaired persons.
To systematically review the benefits and harms of primary care–relevant interventions designed to prevent or reduce illicit drug use or the nonmedical use of prescription drugs among youths.
PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through 4 June 2013; MEDLINE through 31 August 2013; and manual searches of reference lists and gray literature.
Two investigators independently reviewed 2253 abstracts and 144 full-text articles. English-language trials of primary care–relevant behavioral interventions that reported drug use, health outcomes, or harms were included.
One investigator abstracted data from good- and fair-quality trials into prespecified evidence tables, and a second investigator checked these data.
Six trials were included, 4 of which examined the effect of the intervention on a health or social outcome. One trial found no effect of the intervention on marijuana-related consequences or driving under the influence of marijuana; 3 trials generally found no reduction in depressed mood at 12 or 24 months. Four of the 5 trials assessing self-reported marijuana use found statistically significant differences favoring the intervention group participants (such as a between-group difference of 0.10 to 0.17 use occasions in the past month). Three trials also reported positive outcomes in nonmedical prescription drug use occasions.
The body of evidence was small, and there were heterogeneous measures of outcomes of limited clinical applicability. Trials primarily included adolescents with little or no substance use.
Evidence is inadequate on the benefits of primary care–relevant behavioral interventions in reducing self-reported illicit and pharmaceutical drug use among adolescents.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Patnode CD, O’Connor E, Rowland M, Burda BU, Perdue LA, Whitlock EP. Primary Care Behavioral Interventions to Prevent or Reduce Illicit Drug Use and Nonmedical Pharmaceutical Use in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:612–620. doi: 10.7326/M13-2064
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2014;160(9):612-620.
Prevention/Screening, Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse.
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