David S. Fink, MPH; Julia P. Schleimer, BS; Aaron Sarvet, MPH; Kiran K. Grover, BA; Chris Delcher, PhD; Alvaro Castillo-Carniglia, PhD; June H. Kim, PhD; Ariadne E. Rivera-Aguirre, MPP; Stephen G. Henry, MD; Silvia S. Martins, MD, PhD; Magdalena Cerdá, DrPH
Note: Mr. Fink had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Disclaimer: Viewpoints or opinions in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
Grant Support: By grant R01 DA039962 from the NIDA, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and grants 2016-PM-BX-K005 and 2015-PM-BX-K001 from the BJA. Mr. Fink is supported by NIDA training grant T32DA031099. The BJA is a component of the Department of Justice's Office of Justice Programs, which include the Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Institute of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office for Victims of Crime, and Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking.
Disclosures: Mr. Fink and Dr. Kim report grants from the NIH during the conduct of the study. Ms. Grover is employed as a research coordinator at Duke University for an NIDA Clinical Trials Network study outside the submitted work. Dr. Delcher reports grants from the BJA (National Institute of Justice) during the conduct of the study. Dr. Martins reports grants from the NIDA during the conduct of the study. Authors not named here have disclosed no conflicts of interest. Disclosures can also be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M17-3074.
Editors' Disclosures: Christine Laine, MD, MPH, Editor in Chief, reports that her spouse has stock options/holdings with Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD, Executive Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Cynthia D. Mulrow, MD, MSc, Senior Deputy Editor, reports that she has no relationships or interests to disclose. Deborah Cotton, MD, MPH, Deputy Editor, reports that she has no financial relationships or interest to disclose. Jaya K. Rao, MD, MHS, Deputy Editor, reports that she has stock holdings/options in Eli Lilly and Pfizer. Sankey V. Williams, MD, Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Catharine B. Stack, PhD, MS, Deputy Editor for Statistics, reports that she has stock holdings in Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson.
Reproducible Research Statement:Study protocol: See Supplement 1. Statistical code and data set: Not available.
Requests for Single Reprints: David S. Fink, MPH, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, Room 724, New York, NY 10032; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Mr. Fink, Ms. Schleimer, Mr. Sarvet, Ms. Grover, and Dr. Martins: Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th Street, Room 724, New York, NY 10032.
Dr. Delcher: Department of Health Outcomes and Biomedical Informatics & Institute of Child Health Policy, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
Dr. Castillo-Carniglia, Ms. Rivera-Aguirre, and Dr. Cerdá: Violence Prevention Research Program, Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817.
Dr. Kim: Behavioral Science Training in Drug Abuse Research, New York University (Rory Meyers College of Nursing), New York, NY 10010.
Dr. Henry: Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: D.S. Fink, S.S. Martins, M. Cerdá.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: D.S. Fink, J.P. Schleimer, C. Delcher, A. Castillo-Carniglia, S.G. Henry.
Drafting of the article: D.S. Fink, J.P. Schleimer, A. Sarvet, C. Delcher.
Critical revision for important intellectual content: D.S. Fink, J.P. Schleimer, A. Sarvet, C. Delcher, A. Castillo-Carniglia, J.H. Kim, A.E. Rivera-Aguirre, S.G. Henry, S.S. Martins, M. Cerdá.
Final approval of the article: D.S. Fink, J.P. Schleimer, A. Sarvet, K.K. Grover, C. Delcher, A. Castillo-Carniglia, J.H. Kim, A.E. Rivera-Aguirre, S.G. Henry, S.S. Martins, M. Cerdá.
Provision of study materials or patients: D.S. Fink.
Statistical expertise: D.S. Fink, J.P. Schleimer.
Obtaining of funding: S.S. Martins, M. Cerdá.
Administrative, technical, or logistic support: D.S. Fink.
Collection and assembly of data: D.S. Fink, J.P. Schleimer, K.K. Grover.
Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are a key component of the president's Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention Plan to prevent opioid overdoses in the United States.
To examine whether PDMP implementation is associated with changes in nonfatal and fatal overdoses; identify features of programs differentially associated with those outcomes; and investigate any potential unintended consequences of the programs.
Eligible publications from MEDLINE, Current Contents Connect (Clarivate Analytics), Science Citation Index (Clarivate Analytics), Social Sciences Citation Index (Clarivate Analytics), and ProQuest Dissertations indexed through 27 December 2017 and additional studies from reference lists.
Observational studies (published in English) from U.S. states that examined an association between PDMP implementation and nonfatal or fatal overdoses.
2 investigators independently extracted data from and rated the risk of bias (ROB) of studies by using established criteria. Consensus determinations involving all investigators were used to grade strength of evidence for each intervention.
Of 2661 records, 17 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles examined PDMP implementation only (n = 8), program features only (n = 2), PDMP implementation and program features (n = 5), PDMP implementation with mandated provider review combined with pain clinic laws (n = 1), and PDMP robustness (n = 1). Evidence from 3 studies was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding an association between PDMP implementation and nonfatal overdoses. Low-strength evidence from 10 studies suggested a reduction in fatal overdoses with PDMP implementation. Program features associated with a decrease in overdose deaths included mandatory provider review, provider authorization to access PDMP data, frequency of reports, and monitoring of nonscheduled drugs. Three of 6 studies found an increase in heroin overdoses after PDMP implementation.
Few studies, high ROB, and heterogeneous analytic methods and outcome measurement.
Evidence that PDMP implementation either increases or decreases nonfatal or fatal overdoses is largely insufficient, as is evidence regarding positive associations between specific administrative features and successful programs. Some evidence showed unintended consequences. Research is needed to identify a set of “best practices” and complementary initiatives to address these consequences.
National Institute on Drug Abuse and Bureau of Justice Assistance.
Fink DS, Schleimer JP, Sarvet A, Grover KK, Delcher C, Castillo-Carniglia A, et al. Association Between Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Nonfatal and Fatal Drug Overdoses: A Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med. ;168:783–790. doi: 10.7326/M17-3074
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2018;168(11):783-790.
Published at www.annals.org on 8 May 2018
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