Gerald W. Smetana, MD; David M. Nathan, MD; David C. Dugdale, MD; Risa B. Burns, MD, MPH
Acknowledgment: The authors thank the patient for sharing her story.
Grant Support: Beyond the Guidelines receives no external support.
Disclosures: Dr. Nathan reports grants from Alere (now Abbott) outside the submitted work. Authors not named here have disclosed no conflicts of interest. Disclosures can also be viewed at www.acponline.org/authors/icmje/ConflictOfInterestForms.do?msNum=M19-0946.
Editors' Disclosures: Christine Laine, MD, MPH, Editor in Chief, reports that her spouse has stock options/holdings with Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Darren B. Taichman, MD, PhD, Executive Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Cynthia D. Mulrow, MD, MSc, Senior Deputy Editor, reports that she has no relationships or interests to disclose. Jaya K. Rao, MD, MHS, Deputy Editor, reports that she has stock holdings/options in Eli Lilly and Pfizer. Catharine B. Stack, PhD, MS, Deputy Editor, Statistics, reports that she has stock holdings in Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, and Colgate-Palmolive. Christina C. Wee, MD, MPH, Deputy Editor, reports employment with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Sankey V. Williams, MD, Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interests to disclose. Yu-Xiao Yang, MD, MSCE, Deputy Editor, reports that he has no financial relationships or interest to disclose.
Corresponding Author: Gerald W. Smetana, MD, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215; e-mail, email@example.com.
Current Author Addresses: Drs. Smetana and Burns: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215.
Dr. Nathan: Diabetes Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Bulfinch 408, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114.
Dr. Dugdale: University of Washington, Box 354808, Seattle, WA 98195.
In the United States, 9.4% of all adults—and 25% of those older than 65 years—have diabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness and end-stage renal disease and contributes to both microvascular and macrovascular complications. The management of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common and important activity in primary care internal medicine practice. Measurement of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) provides an estimate of mean blood sugar levels and glycemic control. The optimal HbA1c target level among various persons with T2D is a subject of controversy. Guidelines regarding HbA1c targets have yielded differing recommendations. In 2018, the American College of Physicians (ACP) published a guideline on HbA1c targets for nonpregnant adults with T2D. In addition to a recommendation to individualize HbA1c target levels, the ACP proposed a level between 7% and 8% for most patients. The ACP also advised deintensification of therapy for patients who have an HbA1c level lower than 6.5% and avoidance of HbA1c-targeted treatment for patients with a life expectancy of less than 10 years. This guidance contrasts with a recommendation from the American Diabetes Association to aim for HbA1c levels less than 7% for many nonpregnant adults and to consider a target of 6.5% if it can be achieved safely. Here, 2 experts, a diabetologist and a general internist, discuss how to apply the divergent guideline recommendations to a patient with long-standing T2D and a current HbA1c level of 7.8%.
Smetana GW, Nathan DM, Dugdale DC, et al. To What Target Hemoglobin A1c Level Would You Treat This Patient With Type 2 Diabetes?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Ann Intern Med. 2019;171:505–513. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/M19-0946
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2019;171(7):505-513.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism.
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