Joline W.J. Beulens, MSc; Eric B. Rimm, ScD; Alberto Ascherio, MD, DrPH; Donna Spiegelman, ScD; Henk F.J. Hendriks, PhD; Kenneth J. Mukamal, MD, MPH
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Meir J. Stampfer for his valuable comments on the editing of the manuscript.
Grant Support: By National Institutes of Health Grants AA11181, HL35464, and CA55075; a travel grant from the Dutch Heart Association; and a research exchange award from European Research Advisory Board.
Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest: Dr. Rimm has an annual speaking engagement at an academic conference for which the trip is sponsored by Distilled Spirits Council of the United States.
Requests for Single Reprints: Joline W.J. Beulens, MSc, University Medical Center, Utrecht Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands; e-mail, J.Beulens@umcutrecht.nl.
Current Author Addresses: Dr. Beulens: University Medical Center Utrecht Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Drs. Rimm and Ascherio: Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Building II, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.
Dr. Spiegelman: Department of Biostatistics, Kresge Building, Room 806, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.
Dr. Hendriks: Business Unit Biosciences, TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands.
Dr. Mukamal: Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, RO-114, Boston, MA 02215.
Author Contributions: Conception and design: J.W.J. Beulens, E.B. Rimm, A. Ascherio, H.F.J. Hendriks, K.J. Mukamal.
Analysis and interpretation of the data: J.W.J. Beulens, A. Ascherio, D. Spiegelman, K.J. Mukamal.
Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: J.W.J. Beulens, E.B. Rimm, A. Ascherio, D. Spiegelman, H.F.J. Hendriks, K.J. Mukamal.
Final approval of the article: J.W.J. Beulens, E.B. Rimm, A. Ascherio, H.F.J. Hendriks, K.J. Mukamal.
Provision of study materials or patients: E.B. Rimm, D. Spiegelman.
Statistical expertise: D. Spiegelman.
Obtaining of funding: J.W.J. Beulens, E.B. Rimm, D. Spiegelman, H.F.J. Hendriks, K.J. Mukamal.
Collection and assembly of data: E.B. Rimm, D. Spiegelman.
Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk for hypertension, which is in itself a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data on the association between alcohol consumption and CVD among individuals with hypertension are scarce.
To assess whether alcohol consumption is inversely associated with CVD among men with hypertension.
Prospective cohort study.
11 711 men with hypertension from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.
Alcohol consumption was assessed every 4 years by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), fatal coronary heart disease, and stroke were documented from 1986 to 2002.
During follow-up, 653 patients with MI were documented. Compared with patients abstaining from alcohol, the hazard ratio for participants with MI consuming 0.1 to 4.9 grams of alcohol per day was 1.09 (95% CI, 0.86 to 1.37); consuming 5 to 9.9 grams of alcohol per day was 0.81 (CI, 0.60 to 1.08 g/d); consuming 10 to 14.9 grams of alcohol per day was 0.68 (CI, 0.51 to 0.91 g/d); consuming 15 to 29.9 grams of alcohol per day was 0.72 (CI, 0.54 to 0.97 g/d); consuming 30 to 49.9 grams of alcohol per day was 0.67 (CI, 0.48 to 0.94 g/d); and consuming 50 or more grams of alcohol per day was 0.41 (CI, 0.22 to 0.77 g/d) (P < 0.001 for trend). Associations were similar for fatal and nonfatal MI. Alcohol consumption was not associated with total death or death due to CVD. Risks for total and ischemic stroke for patients consuming 10 to 29.9 g of alcohol per day were 1.40 (CI, 0.93 to 2.12) and 1.55 (CI, 0.90 to 2.68) compared with that of abstainers. When corrected for measurement error in alcohol consumption, dietary variables, and body mass index, the hazard ratio for participants with MI per 12.5 grams per day increment of alcohol intake was 0.68 (CI, 0.46 to 1.00).
Hypertension, alcohol consumption, and CVD risk factors were assessed by self-report. Available data used to correct for measurement error were primarily restricted to dietary variables.
In this population of men with hypertension, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk for MI but not with risks for total death or death due to CVD. As in the general population, men with hypertension who drink moderately and safely may not need to change their drinking habits.
Beulens JW, Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Hendriks HF, Mukamal KJ. Alcohol Consumption and Risk for Coronary Heart Disease among Men with Hypertension. Ann Intern Med. ;146:10–19. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-146-1-200701020-00004
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Published: Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(1):10-19.
Cardiology, Coronary Risk Factors, Hypertension, Nephrology, Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse.
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Print ISSN: 0003-4819 | Online ISSN: 1539-3704
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